Advantages, disadvantages and desirable characteristics of shade trees for coffee, cacao and tea

  title={Advantages, disadvantages and desirable characteristics of shade trees for coffee, cacao and tea},
  author={John Beer},
  journal={Agroforestry Systems},
  • J. Beer
  • Published 1 March 1987
  • Biology
  • Agroforestry Systems
A review is made of the ecological interactions that occur between shade trees and the perennial crops: coffee (Coffee spp. L.), cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze). These interactions are classified firstly as advantages or disadvantages, and secondly as: effects on crop management; effects on the hydrological cycle; effects on pathogens, insects and climatic conditions; and effects on soils. References are given for the 20 advantageous and 16 disadvantageous… 

Shade management in coffee and cacao plantations

Shade trees reduce the stress of coffee (Coffea spp.) and cacao (Theobroma cacao) by ameliorating adverse climatic conditions and nutritional imbalances, but they may also compete for growth

Effects of Inga densiflora on the microclimate of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and overall biomass under optimal growing conditions in Costa Rica

Investigating the impact of Inga densiflora, a very common shade tree in Central America, on the microclimate, yield and vegetative development of shaded coffee in comparison to coffee monoculture found Inga-shaded plantations appeared more advantageous than MC in optimal conditions.

Organic Farming Practices and Shade Trees Reduce Pest Infestations in Robusta Coffee Systems in Amazonia

It is demonstrated for the first time how intensified input use might promote pest populations and thus ultimately lead to robusta coffee yield losses.

Impact of shade on morpho-physiological characteristics of coffee plants, their pests and diseases: A review

The advantages of shade for coffee production, the responses of coffee plants to shade in morphology, physiology, and effects on coffee pest and diseases and finally, the effect of shade on coffee pests and diseases are discussed.

Allometric relationships of frequently used shade tree species in cacao agroforestry systems in Sulawesi, Indonesia

The transferability tests ‘analysis of covariance’ and ‘homogeneity of slopes’ have shown that the obtained allometric functions are also applicable to other cacao agroforestry systems of the region.

Litter production and nutrient cycling in coffee (Coffea arabica) or cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantations with shade trees

  • J. Beer
  • Biology
    Agroforestry Systems
  • 2004
Litter productivity is a more important shade tree characteristic than N fixation in fertilized plantations of cacao and coffee, and the consequences of competition with the crop should not be a serious limitation.

Socioeconomic benefits of shade trees in coffee production systems in Bonga and Yayuhurumu districts, southwestern Ethiopia: Farmers’ perceptions

Coffea Arabica is extensively cultivated by households under a variety of shade trees in southwestern Ethiopia. The main purpose of this study was to assess the overall farmers' perception on the


Cacao, one of the world’s most important perennial crops, is almost exclusively explored for chocolate manufacturing. Most cacao varieties belong to three groups: Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario



The shade and fertiliser requirements of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Ghana

Attention is drawn to the dangers of removing shade and to the importance of associated factors such as pest distribution, incidence of weeds, adverse dry season effects and soil degradation.

The end of the first cocoa shade and manurial experiment at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

Deterioration of cocoa was rapid under the no-shade conditions partly because of the high loss of exchangeable bases and the greater stress caused by the higher yield, and therefore the economic life of an unshaded Amelonado cocoa farm in Ghana may not last for more than 10 years of intensive cropping.

A água do solo e o sombreamento dos cafezais na américa central

It is suggested that a comparative study of the moisture-tension curves of soils of Sao Paulo and Central America might explain the different behavior of the coffee plant with shade under these two different conditions.

New developments in cocoa shade studies in Ghana

Attention is drawn to the lack of confirmation for the results of the Amelonado cocoa shade and manurial experiment, Tafo, K1. The shade of this experiment has recently been determined as reducing

Nutrient cycling in two traditional Central American agroforestry systems

A preliminary nutrient cycling study quantified total and temporal nutrient inputs via litterfall and pruning residues in two agroforestry systems: (1) Coffea arabica (perennial crop)-Erythrina

Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems of Latin America and the Caribbean

Plant assimilation and nitrogen cycling.- Microbiological regulation of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.- Simulation of nitrogen in agro-ecosystems: Criteria for model selection and use.- Nitrogen

Tropical Planting and Gardening:

AbstractIN Ceylon, cultivation, whether for profit or pleasure, is conducted under very varied conditions due to the great range of both altitude and rainfall. A comprehensive account of what is

Leaf Temperature, Leaf Pose and Productivity of the Tea Bush

A REVIEW of the effects of radiation on the yield of a wide range of plants led Blackman and Black to conclude that “where other environmental factors are favourable, light may limit dry matter