Advances in vaccine adjuvants

  title={Advances in vaccine adjuvants},
  author={Manmohan J. Singh and Derek T. O’hagan},
  journal={Nature Biotechnology},
Currently, aluminum salts and MF59 are the only vaccine adjuvants approved for human use. With the development of new-generation vaccines (including recombinant subunit and mucosal vaccines) that are less immunogenic, the search for more potent vaccine adjuvants has intensified. Of the novel compounds recently evaluated in human trials, immunostimulatory molecules such as the lipopolysaccharide derived MPL and the saponin derivative QS21 appear most promising, although doubts have been raised… 
New adjuvants for parenteral and mucosal vaccines.
Recent advances in the understanding of the immune system have led to the identification of new biological targets for vaccine adjuvants, and one can now choose adjuvant able to selectively induce T helper (Th)-1 and/or Th2 responses, according to the vaccine target and the desired immune response.
Status and future prospects of lipid-based particulate delivery systems as vaccine adjuvants and their combination with immunostimulators
Current progress in the development of lipid-based vaccine delivery systems is discussed, with a special focus on emulsions, liposomes and immune-stimulating complexes, and their combination with immunostimulatory compounds.
MF59™ as a vaccine adjuvant: a review of safety and immunogenicity
MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion, is currently licensed for use in the elderly as an adjuvant in seasonal influenza vaccines, and its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but enhancement of the interaction between the antigen and the dendritic cell seems to be involved.
In this chapter, the history of vaccine adjuvant development from the beginning studies of the early twentieth century through to the present day is reviewed.
Role and Application of Adjuvants and Delivery Systems in Vaccines
For more than 50 years, several novel adjuvants have been evaluated with human vaccines in preclinical and clinical studies and several mechanisms of action for aluminum based adjuvant have been proposed, which are discussed in this chapter.
Peptides for Vaccine Development.
  • I. Hamley
  • Biology
    ACS applied bio materials
  • 2022
Several peptide immunotherapies are in advanced clinical trials as vaccines, and there is great potential for future therapies due to the specificity of the response that can be achieved using peptide epitopes.
Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Efficient Vectors for Vaccine Delivery
This review describes the different mechanisms of CPP intercellular uptake and various CPP-based vaccine delivery strategies.
Vaccine adjuvants: current challenges and future approaches.
A comprehensive discussion is presented of current vaccine adjuvants, their effects on the induction of immune responses, and vaccine adjUVants that have shown promise in recent literature.


Aluminum compounds as vaccine adjuvants.
  • Gupta
  • Biology
    Advanced drug delivery reviews
  • 1998
Monophosphoryl Lipid A as an Adjuvant
This chapter discusses topics related to the preparation, formulation, and use of MPL® as an adjuvant, a monophosphoryl lipid A preparation derived from the lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella minnesota R595.
Dendritic cells internalize vaccine adjuvant after intramuscular injection.
Findings suggest that MF59 interacts with antigen presenting cells at the site of injection and then moves to the draining lymph nodes, where it increases the efficiency of antigen presentation to T cells.
QS-21: a water-soluble triterpene glycoside adjuvant.
QS-21 has been shown to enhance antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to subunit antigens, as well as DNA vaccines in animal models, and acts as an immunostimulatory adjuvant, eliciting production of immunomodulatory cytokines, and not as an antigen depot.
CpG DNA is a potent enhancer of systemic and mucosal immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen with intranasal administration to mice.
It is shown in mice that intranasal delivery of hepatitis B surface Ag, which alone has no effect, elicits good immune responses when given with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and/or CT, and overall, C pG is superior to CT for the induction of humoral and cell-mediated systemic immunity as well as mucosal immune responses (IgA) at local and distant sites.