Advances in the systemic treatment of head and neck cancers

@article{Specenier2010AdvancesIT,
  title={Advances in the systemic treatment of head and neck cancers},
  author={Pol Specenier and Jan Baptist Vermorken},
  journal={Current Opinion in Oncology},
  year={2010},
  volume={22},
  pages={200–205}
}
Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature on the treatment of recurrent and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Recent findings Multiple targeted therapies and novel combinations of chemotherapeutic agents were tested. Summary In a large randomized phase III trial, the addition of cetuximab to platin-based chemotherapy led to a significant prolongation of overall survival. The combination of cetuximab and platin/5-fluorouracil should be considered the current… 
Systemic Treatment of Recurrent/Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck
TLDR
A recent randomized trial showed that adding cetuximab, an EGFR-directed monoclonal antibody, to a standard platinum-based chemotherapy regimen led to an important survival benefit, which changed practice in this category of head and neck cancer patients.
Nivolumab in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
  • P. Specenier
  • Medicine
    Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • 2018
TLDR
Nivolumab is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients based on the results of CheckMate 141 showing an overall survival benefit as compared to standard care (single agent docetaxel, methotrexate, or cetuximab).
Chemotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer
TLDR
Cetuximab administered concomitantly with radiotherapy has not been directly compared with CRT but offers a potential different approach using a noncytotoxic systemic agent.
Recurrent Oral Cancer: Current and Emerging Therapeutic Approaches
TLDR
This review discusses the multifactorial aspects of clinical drug resistance and emerging therapeutic approaches in recurrent OCC, emphasizing recent advances in targeted therapies, immunotherapy, and potential relevance of new concepts such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell hypothesis to drug resistance.
Resistance to dasatinib is associated with the activation of Akt in oral squamous cell carcinoma
TLDR
Overexpression and aberrant activation of Src promote the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), thus therapies targeting Src-related kinases may afford an improvement in patient survival, and reactivation of Akt could be a compensatory mechanism that bypasses Src inhibition by dasatinib.
Basic consideration of research strategies for head and neck cancer
TLDR
Basic knowledge of aetiology, key risk factors related to the development of head and neck cancer, basic features of clinical appearance of this group of cancers, and strategies for prevention and early detection are reinforced.
Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Chemoresistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
TLDR
The current understandings on OSCC drug mechanisms under the novel context of exosomes and microvesicles were reviewed, including shuttling of miRNA content, drug efflux, alteration of vesicular pH, anti-apoptotic signaling, modulation of DNA damage repair, immunomodulation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and maintenance of tumor by cancer stem cells.
Expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 and Ki-67 in oral squamous cell carcinoma:An immunohistochemical study
Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent malignancy of the oral cavity, highly invasive with unfavorable prognosis and unimproved 5-year survival rate for at least two
p53 as a prognostic marker associated with the risk of mortality for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
TLDR
Investigation of survival and the risk of mortality in OSCC with regard to stage, tumor site and p53 expression supported the absolute indications for wide surgical margins (radical surgery) in cases of T1-T2 N0 tumors of the tongue, floor, retromolar trigone and attached gingiva when p53 overexpression is >50% in association with a higher risk of death.
Long-term survival after distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.
TLDR
For OPSCC patients with limited, single-organ disease and good KPS, long-term survival can be achieved, and a prognostic index for survival after distant failure is created based on the selected model.
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References

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Phase II trial of irinotecan plus cisplatin in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous carcinoma of the head and neck
TLDR
The authors report the results of a phase II trial of irinotecan and cisplatin in patients with metastatic or recurrent HNC, which shows poor response and survival with currently available chemotherapy agents.
Current concepts for the management of head and neck cancer: chemotherapy.
TLDR
None of the combination chemotherapy regimens demonstrated an overall survival benefit when compared to single agent methotrexate, cisplatin or 5-fluorouracil in recurrent/metastatic disease.
Recurrent head and neck cancer: current treatment and future prospects
TLDR
A recent randomized trial showed that adding cetuximab, the first clinically available EGF receptor-directed monoclonal antibody, to a standard chemotherapy regimen (platinum/5-fluorouracil), led to an important survival benefit.
A phase II study of weekly paclitaxel and epirubicin in recurrent or refractory squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
TLDR
In the population with majority of refractory disease of SCCHN, the response rate to TE was lower than expected, and such dose schedule is not recommended unless in chemotherapy naïve patients or in combination with newer agents.
Maintenance Immunotherapy in Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck
TLDR
Outpatient administration of DIP, followed by low-dose interleukin-2 and 13-cis-retinoic acid, was generally well tolerated and showed promising activity against RMHN.
Docetaxel and irinotecan in recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer
Docetaxel and irinotecan have single‐agent antitumor activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The authors sought to evaluate their combination in the treatment of patients
Weekly docetaxel in patients with platinum-refractory metastatic or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
TLDR
Weekly docetaxel regimen had good clinical activity with an acceptable toxicity in patients with platinum-refractory SCCHN.
A phase II study of sunitinib in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic non-nasopharyngeal head and neck cancer
TLDR
It is shown that SU012662 has a longer half-life and a larger volume of distribution than the parent drug sunitinib, and no further development of the drug in this indication is warranted.
First safety and response results of a randomized phase III study with liposomal platin in the treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
TLDR
Liposomal cisplatin seems to reduce both the renal and hematological toxicity to a clinically relevant extent as compared to conventional cis Platin.
Multicenter phase II study of cetuximab plus docetaxel in 84 patients with recurrent or metastatic, platinum-pretreated SCCHN.
TLDR
Cetuximab plus docetaxel was an active second-line treatment regimen with acceptable toxicity in patients with platinum-pretreated SCCHN and the responsiveness was independent of previous platinum sensitivity.
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