Advanced Algebra

Abstract

This chapter investigates the objects and mappings of algebraic geometry from a geometric point of view, making use especially of the algebraic tools of Chapter VII and of Sections 7–10 of Chapter VIII. In Sections 1–12, k denotes a fixed algebraically closed field. Sections 1–6 establish the definitions and elementary properties of varieties, maps between varieties, and dimension, all over k. Sections 1–3 concern varieties and dimension. Affine algebraic sets, affine varieties, and the Zariski topology on affine space are introduced in Section 1, and projective algebraic sets and projective varieties are introduced in Section 3. Section 2 defines the geometric dimension of an affine algebraic set, relating the notion to Krull dimension and transcendence degree. The actual context of Section 2 is a Noetherian topological space, the Zariski topology on affine space being an example. In such a space every closed subset is the finite union of irreducible closed subsets, and the union can be written in a certain way that makes the decomposition unique. Every nonempty closed set has a meaningful geometric dimension. In affine space the irreducible closed sets are the varieties, and each variety acquires a geometric dimension. The discussion in Section 2 applies in the context of projective space as well, and thus each projective variety acquires a geometric dimension. Moreover, any nonempty open subset of a Noetherian space is Noetherian. A nonempty open subset of an affine variety is called quasi-affine, and a nonempty open subset of a projective variety is called quasiprojective. Each quasi-affine variety or quasiprojective variety has a dimension equal to that of its closure, which is a variety. Sections 4–6 take up maps between varieties. Section 4 introduces spaces of scalar-valued functions on quasiprojective varieties—rational functions, functions regular at a point, and functions regular on an open set. The section goes on to relate these notions for the different kinds of varieties. Section 5 introduces morphisms, which are a restricted kind of function between varieties. The tools of Sections 4–5 together show that for many purposes all the different kinds of varieties can be treated as quasiprojective varieties. Section 6 introduces rational maps between varieties; these are not everywhere-defined functions, but each can be restricted to an open dense subset on which it is a morphism. Rational maps with dense image correspond to field mappings of the fields of rational functions, with the order of the mappings reversed. Section 7 concerns singularities at points of varieties, still over the field k. Zariski’s Theorem was stated in Chapter VII for affine varieties and partly proved at that time. In the current context it has a meaning for any point of any quasiprojective variety. The section proves the full theorem, which characterizes singular points in a way that shows they remain singular under isomorphisms

Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Knapp2007AdvancedA, title={Advanced Algebra}, author={Anthony W. Knapp}, year={2007} }