Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal circuits

  title={Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal circuits},
  author={Pierre-Marie Lledo and Mariana Mac{\'i}as Alonso and Matthew S. Grubb},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
The adult brain is a plastic place. To ensure that the mature nervous system's control of behaviour is flexible in the face of a varying environment, morphological and physiological changes are possible at many levels, including that of the entire cell. In two areas of the adult brain — the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus — new neurons are generated throughout life and form an integral part of the normal functional circuitry. This process is not fixed, but highly modulated, revealing a… 

Adult neurogenesis and modulation of neural circuit function

  • K. Inokuchi
  • Biology, Psychology
    Current Opinion in Neurobiology
  • 2011

Mechanisms of neurogenesis in the normal and injured adult brain.

Recent findings on the regulatory mechanisms of SVZ neurogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions in various animal models are summarized.

Neuronal Circuitry Mechanisms Regulating Adult Mammalian Neurogenesis.

Recent progress toward understanding the circuit-based regulation of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb is reviewed.

Development of neural circuits in the adult hippocampus.

Functions and dysfunctions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

A general model is considered proposing that adult neurogenesis is not a cell-replacement mechanism, but instead maintains a plastic hippocampal neuronal circuit via the continuous addition of immature, new neurons with unique properties and structural plasticity of mature neurons induced by new-neuron integration.

Synaptic integration and plasticity of new neurons in the adult hippocampus

It is proposed that adult neurogenesis represents not merely a replacement mechanism for lost neurons, but also an ongoing developmental process in the adult brain that offers an expanded capacity for plasticity for shaping the existing circuitry in response to experience throughout life.

The how and why of adult neurogenesis

Questions about adult neurogenesis, an adaptive response to challenges imposed by an environment and/or internal state of the animal, and how this functional demand is translated into signals a precursor cell can detect are addressed.



Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

It is reported that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells.

A role for circuit homeostasis in adult neurogenesis

Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system.

Advances in the understanding of adult neurogenesis will not only shed light on the basic principles of adult plasticity, but also may lead to strategies for cell replacement therapy after injury or degenerative neurological diseases.

Unsupervised Learning and Adaptation in a Model of Adult Neurogenesis

It is shown that a simple mathematical model following these rules organizes its activity so as to maximize the difference between its responses and can adapt to changing environmental conditions in unsupervised fashion, in agreement with current neurophysiological data.

Adult neurogenesis: from precursors to network and physiology.

An overview of the current knowledge on adult neurogenesis and its functional relevance for the adult brain is proposed and a growing list of epigenetic factors that display a specificity of action depending on the neurogenic site under consideration has been identified.

Critical period plasticity in local cortical circuits

  • T. Hensch
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2005
The reactivation of this process, and subsequent recovery of function in conditions such as amblyopia, can now be studied with realistic circuit models that might generalize across systems.

Evidence for neurogenesis in the adult mammalian substantia nigra

  • Ming ZhaoS. Momma A. Janson
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2003
Evidence for the generation of dopaminergic projection neurons of the type that are lost in Parkinson's disease from stem cells in the adult rodent brain is provided and it is shown that the rate of neurogenesis is increased after a lesion.

Learning enhances adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation

It is reported that the number of adult-generated neurons doubles in the rat dentate gyrus in response to training on associative learning tasks that require the hippocampus, which indicates that adult- generated hippocampal neurons are specifically affected by, and potentially involved in, associative memory formation.

Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories

It is shown that a substantial reduction in the number of newly generated neurons in the adult rat impairs hippocampal-dependent trace conditioning, a task in which an animal must associate stimuli that are separated in time.

Generation of Functional Inhibitory Neurons in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

Using mutant Semliki Forest Virus vectors to express enhanced green fluorescent protein in the hippocampus, it is observed that ∼14% of newly generated neurons in the dentate gyrus of adult rats are GABAergic basket cells (BCs).