Conceptualization (AC) is a conceptually-based, analytic approach to learning. People with an orientation toward abstract conceptualization focus on logic, ideas, precision, and concepts, emphasizing thinking and analyzing ideas, and not feeling. A person with this orientation is good at systematic planning, manipulating abstract symbols, and has a scientific as opposed to an artistic approach to problems. Concrete Experience (CE) is an experience-based approach to learning. People with concrete experience preferences focus on being directly involved in experiences, dealing with human situations personally, are good at relating to others, and are good intuitive decision makers. They emphasize feeling as opposed to thinking, have an intuitive, artistic approach as opposed to a systematic, scientific approach to problems, and have an open-minded approach to life. Active Experimentation (AE) is an action-based approach to learning. An orientation toward active experimentation includes practical applications, looking for what works and doing, as opposed to reflective understanding and observing. These people enjoy and are good at getting things accomplished, are willing to take some risk to achieve objectives, and value having influence on the environment around them. Reflective Observation (RO) is an observation-based (watching), impartial approach to learning. Individuals with reflective observation style focus on understanding meanings of ideas by observing and describing them. They emphasize understanding as opposed to practical application, are concerned with truth or how things happen as opposed to what will work, and emphasize reflection over action. They appreciate different points of view, rely on their own feelings to form opinions, and value patience, impartiality, and thoughtful judgment (Kolb & Smith, 1986).