Electrochemical Glucose Sensors—Developments Using Electrostatic Assembly and Carbon Nanotubes for Biosensor Construction
In this study, we describe the use of a sodium cholate suspension-dialysis method to adsorb the redox enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). By this method, solutions of dispersed and debundled SWNTs were prepared that remained stable for 30 days and which retained 75% of the native enzymatic activity. We also demonstrate that GOX-SWNT conjugates can be assembled into amperometric biosensors with a poly[(vinylpyridine)Os(bipyridyl)2Cl(2+/3+)] redox polymer (PVP-Os) through a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly process. Incorporation of SWNT-enzyme conjugates into the LBL films resulted in current densities as high as 440 microA/cm2, which were a 2-fold increase over the response of films without SWNTs. We also demonstrate that the adsorption pH of the redox polymer solution and the dispersion quality of SWNTs were important parameters in controlling the electrochemical and enzymatic properties of the LBL films.