High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study the adsorption and reaction of 1-epoxy-3-butene (EpB) on Pt(111). These investigations were conducted to help elucidate mechanisms for improving olefin hydrogenation selectivity in reactions of unsaturated oxygenates. EpB dosed to Pt(111) at 91 K adsorbs molecularly on the surface through the vinyl group with apparent rehybridization to a di-sigma-bound state. By 233 K, however, EpB undergoes epoxide ring opening to form an aldehyde intermediate, which further decomposes upon heating to yield gas phase products CO, H2, and propylene. Comparison of the HREELS and TPD data to experiments performed with 2-butenal (crotonaldehyde) shows that EpB and 2-butenal decompose through related pathways. However, the EpB-derived aldehyde intermediate clearly has a unique structure, features of which have been elucidated by DFT calculations. In conjunction with previous surface science studies of EpB chemistry, these results can help explain selectivity trends for reactions of EpB on Pt catalysts and bimetallic PtAg catalysts, with indications that the enhanced olefin hydrogenation selectivity of PtAg catalysts likely originates from a bifunctional effect.