Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and centrally-acting cholinomimetic drugs improve survival of rats with severe hemorrhagic shock through distinct central cholinergic mechanisms.

  title={Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and centrally-acting cholinomimetic drugs improve survival of rats with severe hemorrhagic shock through distinct central cholinergic mechanisms.},
  author={Alfio Bertolini and William Ferrari and Salvatore Guarini},
  volume={18 2-3},
Pharmacological doses (40-160 micrograms/kg) of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) intravenously injected to urethane-anesthetized rats subjected to otherwise lethal hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure stabilized at 20-25 mmHg) promptly restore blood pressure to about the pre-bleeding values, and prevent death (anti-shock effect). Hemicholinium-3 (i.c.v. injected) and atropine sulphate, but not atropine methylbromide, antagonize these ACTH effects. Moreover, since pirenzepine, injected i… Expand
Reversal of hemorrhagic shock in rats by oxotremorine: the role of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, and AV3V region
The electrolytic lesions of AV3V region significantly inhibited oxotremorine-induced increases in both blood pressure and survival rate in rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock, indicating that AV2V region plays a major role in cholinergic cardiovascular control in hypotensive animals as well as normotensives. Expand
Involvement of the cholinergic system in the central histamine-induced reversal of critical haemorrhagic hypotension in rats.
  • M. Yalçın, V. Savci, J. Jochem
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • 2009
There are interactions between the histaminergic and cholinergic systems, with an involvement of both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, in the central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension in rats. Expand
Afferent vagal fibres and central cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the TRH-induced reversal of haemorrhagic shock.
Data indicate that afferent vagal fibres, brain cholinergic neurons and central muscarinic receptors play a role in the mechanism of the anti-shock effect of TRH-T. Expand
The improved hemodynamic recovery achieved with physostigmine was also associated with attenuation of the rises in the markers of liver and renal damage alanine aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen in alcohol-intoxicated animals. Expand
Central acetylcholinesterase inhibition improves hemodynamic counterregulation to severe blood loss in alcohol-intoxicated rats.
  • K. Mathis, P. Molina
  • Medicine
  • American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 2009
I.c.v. neostigmine enhanced epinephrine responses and restored the hemorrhage-induced release of norepinephrine and AVP in alcohol-treated rats, providing evidence for a central (and not peripheral) role of alcohol in impairing hemodynamic stability during hemorrhagic shock. Expand
The role of nitric oxide in the reversal of hemorrhagic shock by oxotremorine.
Analysis of microdialysis samples collected from the AV3V region showed that L-citrulline concentration increased during bleeding and that this increase was abolished by L-NAME pretreatment, which may suggest that nitric oxide production contributes to hypotension in rats bled to shock. Expand


The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced reversal of hemorrhagic shock.
The studies on the mechanism of action indicate that the ACTH-induced reversal of hemorrhagic shock is an extra-hormonal, adrenal-independent effect, and in animals treated with ACTH within 5-10 min after bleeding, blood reinfusion retains its effectiveness and reverse shock even if performed 2-5 h later. Expand
Adrenocorticotropin reversal of experimental hemorrhagic shock is antagonized by morphine.
D dose-dependently improved cardiovascular function in rats and dogs subjected to experimental hemorrhagic shock, and intravenous dose of 160 and 100/microgram/kg, respectively, completely restoring arterial blood pressure and pulse amplitude, and suggest that melanocortin peptides may prove to be rational and effective drugs in the treatment of hypovolemic shock. Expand
Influence of vagotomy and of atropine on the anti-shock effect of adrenocorticotropin
Data indicate that a central cholinergic pathway and vagal afferent (but not efferent) fibers play an important role in the anti-shock effect of ACTH. Expand
α-MSH and other ACTH fragments improve cardiovascular function and survival in experimental hemorrhagic shock
Hypovolemic shock was produced in rats by withdrawing about 50% of the estimated total blood volume. Following mean arterial pressure stabilization in the range of 15–25 mm Hg, with a pulse pressureExpand
Anti-shock effect of ACTH: haematological changes and influence of splenectomy.
It is concluded that, in cases of acute hypovolemia, ACTH-(1-24) induces a recall of blood from storage sites and its redistribution, though the precise mechanism is as yet unknown. Expand
The effect of enkephalins and of β‐endorphin on the hypertensive response to physostigmine in the rat
It is concluded that opioids depress the central cholinergic link implicated in the hypertensive response to physostigmine most probably by inhibiting acetylcholine and/or noradrenaline release in the structures relevant for the action of physostIGmine on blood pressure of the rat. Expand
Anti-shock effect of ACTH-(1-24): influence of subtotal hepatectomy.
The results further support the idea that the effect of ACTH in haemorrhagic shock is due to the mobilization of blood pooled in peripheral reserve organs. Expand
Cardiovascular control by cholinergic mechanisms in the central nervous system.
The function of catecholaminergic pathways in the central connections of the autonomic nervous system and the development of drugs which lower blood pressure through stimulation of central adrenergic sites have fostered precocious ad­ vances involving the biogenic amines. Expand
Atropine-like properties of hemicholinium-3.
Hemicholinium antagonizes reversibly and selectively the action of acetylcholine on the terminal ileum, the uterine horn and the isolated atrium of guinea pig, but does not modify that on arterial blood pressure in the anaesthetized cat. Expand
Muscarinic receptor subtypes: M1 and M2 biochemical and functional characterization.
A finding which agrees with the view that muscarinic receptors are heterogenous and that excitatory ganglionic receptors (Ml) are distinguishable from those (M2) present in effector organs like smooth muscle and heart is found. Expand