Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: Reflections on Some Contemporary Clinical and Research Issues.

  title={Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: Reflections on Some Contemporary Clinical and Research Issues.},
  author={Kenneth J. Zucker},
  journal={Archives of sexual behavior},
  • K. Zucker
  • Published 18 July 2019
  • Psychology
  • Archives of sexual behavior
This article provides an overview of five contemporary clinical and research issues pertaining to adolescents with a diagnosis of gender dysphoria: (1) increased referrals to specialized gender identity clinics; (2) alteration in the sex ratio; (3) suicidality; (4) "rapid-onset gender dysphoria" (ROGD) as a new developmental pathway; (5) and best practice clinical care for adolescents who may have ROGD. 

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The so-called 'affirmative approach' to gender dysphoria is discussed, the implications of the Memorandum of Understanding on conversion therapy are considered and the relationship betweengender dysphoria and the developmental problems that are characteristic of adolescence is said.

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The current knowledge about GD in adolescents is reviewed, with particular emphasis on terminology, clinical manifestations, and epidemiologic data, and both hormonal treatment and mental issues of transgender individuals are discussed.

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A typology of gender detransition based on the cessation or the continuation of a transgender identity to address this issue is suggested, highlighting the challenges that clinicians face when treating individuals with gender dysphoria.

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Assessment of medical records of all transgender individuals referred to the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization between March 2012 and March 2017 concluded that gender dysphoria is less prevalent in Iran than has been reported in Western countries.



Late-Onset Transgender Identity Development of Adolescents in Psychotherapy for Mood and Anxiety Problems: Approach to Assessment and Treatment

This article illustrates challenges with two adolescent patients who developed late-onset gender dysphoria in the course of long-term mental health care for diverse psychiatric problems preceding the emergence ofGender dysphoria.

Treatment of adolescents with gender dysphoria in the Netherlands.

Psychological characteristics of Italian gender dysphoric adolescents: a case–control study

GD adolescents reported significantly higher body dissatisfaction and suicidal risk compared to NRs and results confirmed a significant impairment in social psychological functioning in adolescents with GD.

[Characteristics of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria referred to the Hamburg Gender Identity Clinic].

Assessment of demographic characteristics and developmental trajectories of a group of gender variant boys and girls referred to the specialised Gender Identity Clinic in Hamburg indicates that the presentation of clinically referred gender dysphoric girls differs from the characteristics boys present in Germany; especially with respect to the most salient age differences.

Models of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria

This chapter reviews empirical data on the extent to which children and adolescents with gender dysphoria show other types of psychopathology or behavior problems. It then reviews several models that

[Dramatic increase of gender dysphoria in youth].

Gender-confirming medical interventions are the only recommended treatment for gender dysphoria, and early treatment facilitates the ability to successfully pass in the desired sex, which is associated with a significantly better prognosis.

Young people with features of gender dysphoria: Demographics and associated difficulties

In conclusion, young people with gender dysphoria often present with a wide range of associated difficulties which clinicians need to take into account, and the article highlights the often complex presentations of these young people.

Epidemiology of gender dysphoria and transgender identity.

It is suggested that the prevalence of a self-reported transgender identity in children, adolescents and adults ranges from 0.5 to 1.3%, markedly higher than prevalence rates based on clinic-referred samples of adults.

Psychiatric comorbidity in gender dysphoric adolescents.

Despite the suffering resulting from the incongruence between experienced and assigned gender at the start of puberty, the majority of gender dysphoric adolescents do not have co-occurring psychiatric problems and delayed eligibility for medical interventions is associated with psychiatric comorbidity.