OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that low socioeconomic status (SES), a disturbed parent-daughter relationship, early sexual development, and antisocial behavior are risk factors in adolescent females affiliating with adult male sexual partners. To determine whether the relation between these risk factors and affiliating with adult male sexual partners is stronger in females with greater, rather than fewer, substance use disorders (SUD). METHOD Subjects were 180 adolescent females with SUD and 87 normal controls (14-18 years of age). RESULTS The SUD group had a lower SES and more negative parent-daughter interactions, and exhibited greater antisocial tendencies. Also, the SUD group showed a more frequent affiliation with adult male sexual partners. Chronological age, age of menarche (sexual development), antisocial behavior, and quality of the parent-daughter relationship were significantly associated with affiliation with adult male sexual partners. Moreover, the number of SUD diagnoses enhanced the relation between the quality of the parent-daughter relationship and antisocial behavior with affiliation with adult male sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS From a prevention perspective, interventions directed at enhancing child rearing practices, communication skills, and involvement in children's needs and activities might result in improved parent-child attachments that may attentuate young women's propensities to become involved in antisocial behavior and affiliate with adult sexual partners. Also, the risk imposed by an early sexual maturation may be offset by enhancing the female adolescent's social skills to select non-deviant and supportive male partners.