Administration of Endocannabinoids Prevents a Referred Hyperalgesia Associated with Inflammation of the Urinary Bladder

@article{FarquharSmith2001AdministrationOE,
  title={Administration of Endocannabinoids Prevents a Referred Hyperalgesia Associated with Inflammation of the Urinary Bladder},
  author={W. Paul Farquhar-Smith and Andrew S. C. Rice},
  journal={Anesthesiology},
  year={2001},
  volume={94},
  pages={507-513}
}
Background Referred hyperalgesia to a somatopically appropriate superficial site is a cardinal symptom of visceral inflammatory pain and has been demonstrated after turpentine-induced urinary bladder inflammation in the rat. The authors examined the effect of the endocannabinoids anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide on the referred hyperalgesia associated with this model. Methods After measurement of baseline limb withdrawal latencies to a noxious heat stimulus, the bladders of 50 female Wistar… 
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It is suggested that pain arising from cystitis may be inhibited by activation of spinal CB1R but the acute local response of the bladder appeared to be unaffected by stimulation of spinalCB1R.
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It is revealed that PEA might be effective in relieving inflammatory and neuropathic pain, especially pain induced by mechanical hyperalgesia, but not cold allodynia.
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A mechanistic discussion of the "framework" for analgesia will be followed by a description of studies examining the role of endocannabinoids in relieving pain; since the elucidation of these effects was undertaken using synthetic cannabinoids, reference will also be made to such studies, in the context of endOCannabinoids.
Local activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the urinary bladder reduces the inflammation-induced sensitization of bladder afferents
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Results demonstrate that sensitization of bladder afferents induced by inflammation is partly suppressed by intravesical activation of cannabinoid receptors, an effect that appears to be mediated by CB1 receptors.
Involvement of cannabinoid receptors in inflammatory hypersensitivity to colonic distension in rats
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  • 2006
TLDR
It is concluded that colonic inflammation enhances the antinociceptive action of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, and activates an endogenous, CB1 receptor mediated, antinOCiceptive pathway.
Potential Future Pharmacological Treatment of Bladder Dysfunction.
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    Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
  • 2016
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Evidence suggests that components of the endocannabinoid system are involved in regulation of bladder function, but the roles of these channels for normal function and in pathological states have not been established, and so far adverse effects (hyperthermia) have hampered development of antagonists.
The role of endocannabinoids and their receptors on the regulation of bladder function and detrusor overactivity
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In conclusion, cannabinoid receptors are involved in normal micturition at both peripheral and CNS sites, data supported by in vitro studies where CB1 reduced neuronal activity and where both cannabinoid receptors modulated bladder contractility.
Protective effect of palmitoylethanolamide in a rat model of cystitis.
Activation of GPR18 by Resolvin D2 Relieves Pain and Improves Bladder Function in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis Through Inhibiting TRPV1
TLDR
Activation of GPR18 by RvD2 alleviated hyperalgesia and improved bladder function, possibly by inhibiting TRPV1 in rats with CYP-induced cystitis.
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