Adipose tissue in human infancy and childhood: an evolutionary perspective.

@article{Kuzawa1998AdiposeTI,
  title={Adipose tissue in human infancy and childhood: an evolutionary perspective.},
  author={Christopher W Kuzawa},
  journal={American journal of physical anthropology},
  year={1998},
  volume={Suppl 27},
  pages={
          177-209
        }
}
  • C. Kuzawa
  • Published 1998
  • Biology, Medicine
  • American journal of physical anthropology
Humans diverge from most mammals, including nonhuman primates, by depositing significant quantities of body fat in utero and are consequently one of the fattest species on record at birth. While explanations for the fat layer of human neonates have commonly assumed that it serves as insulation to compensate for hairlessness, empirical support for this hypothesis is presently weak. Whether the tissue's abundance at birth and growth changes in adiposity during infancy and childhood might be… Expand
Fetal programming of adipose tissue function: an evolutionary perspective
TLDR
This review serves to reconcile ethnic variations in BAT development and function with ethnic differences in birth weight outcomes to argue that the variation in obesity susceptibility between ethnic groups may have its origins in the in utero programming of BATDevelopment and function as a result of evolutionary adaptation to cold environments. Expand
The evolution of human fatness and susceptibility to obesity: an ethological approach
  • J. Wells
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2006
TLDR
The proximate causes, ontogeny, fitness value and evolutionary history of human fat deposition are considered, and Alterations to the obesogenic environment are predicted to play a key role in reducing the prevalence of obesity. Expand
Why are human newborns so fat? Relationship between fatness and brain size at birth [retracted article]
TLDR
It is found that head circumference is significantly and positively associated with BMI at birth, after gestational age and birthlength were controlled for, in a sample of 1,069 healthy liveborn routinely delivered at the University Hospital of Coimbra. Expand
Fetal Liver Blood Flow Distribution: Role in Human Developmental Strategy to Prioritize Fat Deposition versus Brain Development
TLDR
It is proposed that humans evolved a developmental strategy to prioritize nutrient allocation for prenatal fat deposition when the supply of conditionally essential nutrients requiring hepatic inter-conversion is limited, switching resource allocation to favour the brain if the supplyof essential nutrients is limited. Expand
Body composition and the brain: investigating life history trade-offs in living humans
TLDR
Results suggest the metabolic cost of organs and tissues is variable, and that the brain – in particular its gray matter component – trades off against lean tissues in the body, but not fat mass, but less support was found for the prediction that trade-offs are mediated by fetal and infant growth. Expand
The "Skinny" on brown fat, obesity, and bone.
  • M. Devlin
  • Medicine, Biology
  • American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2015
TLDR
Current findings on the role of BAT in thermoregulation, bone growth, and metabolism are reviewed, the potential role ofBAT in moderating the obesity epidemic is described, and possible functions of BAT are outlined across hominin evolutionary history are outlined. Expand
Comparative energetics of primate fetal growth
  • S. Ulijaszek
  • Biology, Medicine
  • American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2002
TLDR
In this comparative analysis of the energetic burden of pregnancy among primates (including humans), the daily energy investment in the development of neonatal tissue is modeled and allows greater brain size relative to body weight at birth compared with all other primates, apart from chimpanzees. Expand
How Can We Overcome the Biological Inertia of Past Deprivation? Anthropological Perspectives on the Developmental Origins of Adult Health
Due in large part to work by David Barker and his colleagues, it is now widely accepted that prenatal nutrition modifies early development, and in so doing, influences adult biology and risk ofExpand
Comparative and evolutionary dimensions of the energetics of human pregnancy and lactation
  • D. Dufour, M. Sauther
  • Biology, Medicine
  • American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2002
TLDR
The extent to which human reproductive energetics are distinct from other primates and other large‐bodied placental mammals is evaluated using data from a variety of different populations living under different environmental circumstances. Expand
Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: implications for brain expansion during human evolution.
TLDR
The core of the shore-based paradigm of human brain evolution proposes that sustained access by certain groups of early Homo to freshwater and marine food resources would have helped surmount both the nutritional as well as the energetic constraints on mammalian brain development. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 279 REFERENCES
Brown adipose tissue: structure and function.
  • E. Arbuthnott
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • 1989
Within the context of the biology of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a clear understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms requires a sound knowledge of the histology and ultrastructure ofExpand
Evolutionary hypotheses for human childhood
TLDR
Evidence is presented that childhood evolved as a new stage hominid life history, first appearing, perhaps, during the time of Homo habilis. Expand
Neonatal nutrition and longitudinal growth in baboons: Adiposity measured by skinfold thickness
  • A. Coelho, G. Rutenberg
  • Biology, Medicine
  • American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 1989
TLDR
It is found that during the first 16 weeks of the experiments, baboon growth was strongly influenced by food shortages but not by excesses; however, when the dietary treatment ceased, growth appeared to be strongly regulated by a genetic component (developmental canalization) and tended to return to a more normal growth pattern within a 26 week time frame. Expand
Body composition and nutrition support in pediatrics: what to defend and how soon to begin.
  • J. Cunningham
  • Medicine
  • Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
  • 1995
TLDR
The analysis suggests that an acute risk of protein depletion exists for children of all ages, and the empirical wisdom that "the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence" should be invoked to support early nutrition intervention. Expand
Estimates of body fatness in infancy and childhood
  • P. Davies
  • Medicine
  • American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 1992
TLDR
The use of H218O as a tracer for the calulation of total body water allows the noninvasive estimation of fat‐free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in the pediatric population to support the hypothesis that there has been a secular trend in levels of body fatness in children in recent years. Expand
Evolutionary perspectives on human nutrition: The influence of brain and body size on diet and metabolism
TLDR
Evidence from the hominid fossil record implies that major changes in diet and relative brain metabolism occurred with the emergence of the genus Homo, and this diet appears to reflect an adaptation to the high metabolic cost of the authors' large brain. Expand
Morphological Aspects and the Ecological and Mechanical Consequences of Fat Deposition in Wild Vertebrates
TLDR
It is now universally accepted that much (but not all) body fat serves as an energy reserve, but its other "functions" and the consequences of its presence on the anatomy and physiology of the whole animal have not been the subject of critical review since the work of Shattock and Auerbach. Expand
A THERMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF INFANTS EXPOSED TO COLD
TLDR
There is conclusive evidence that brown adipose tissue is the main site of heat production in response to cold exposure in newborn rabbits and in guinea pigs, a thermosensitive area in the cervical spinal cord has been found and outlined. Expand
High prevalence of excess fat and central fat patterning among Mongolian pastoral nomads
  • C. Beall, M. Goldstein
  • Medicine
  • American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 1992
TLDR
A body composition favoring centrally deposited fat may be adaptive to a cold stressed population because it would aid in heat production and heat conservation in the age–sex groups that are usually at a thermal disadvantage because of small body size and/or low basal metabolic rate relative to men. Expand
Plasma Leptin in Infants: Relations to Birth Weight and Weight Loss
TLDR
The plasma leptin level is highly correlated to the size of adipose tissue mass and decreases in connection with the initial physiological weight loss in newborn infants, providing evidence that leptin is highly related to the nutritional status already during the fetal and neonatal periods. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...