Mapping PTGERs to the Ovulatory Follicle: Regional Responses to the Ovulatory PGE2 Signal.
The midcycle LH surge stimulates a rise in follicular fluid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is necessary for normal ovulation. To examine PGE2-regulated processes in primate follicles, monkey granulosa cells were cultured with hCG alone or with hCG and PGE2, and the resulting total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis. Twenty PGE2-regulated mRNAs were identified, and we selected a lipid droplet protein, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), for further study. To determine whether hCG and PGE2 regulate ADRP expression in vivo, monkeys received gonadotropins to stimulate multiple follicular development. Human chorionic gonadotropin was then administered alone or with the PG synthesis inhibitor celecoxib, and follicular aspirates or whole ovaries were obtained at times that span the 40-h periovulatory interval. Administration of hCG increased granulosa cell ADRP mRNA and protein, with peak levels measured just before the expected time of ovulation. Treatment with hCG and celecoxib decreased granulosa cell ADRP mRNA levels compared with those of animals treated with hCG only. ADRP was detected by immunocytochemistry in many monkey tissues that synthesize prostaglandins but was not consistently expressed by steroidogenic tissues. Granulosa cells of periovulatory follicles immunostained for ADRP after, but not before, hCG administration; ADRP colocalized with large lipid droplets within the granulosa cell cytoplasm. These studies identify ADRP as a novel gonadotropin- and PGE2-regulated protein in the granulosa cells of primate periovulatory follicles. Because ADRP facilitates arachidonic acid uptake in non-ovarian cells, ADRP-associated lipid droplets may enhance arachidonic acid uptake by granulosa cells to provide a precursor for periovulatory prostaglandin production.