Growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 on LB medium: monitoring utilization of sugars, alcohols, and organic acids with transcriptional microarrays
We have described a method to reliably measure the free adenine content of yeast extract powders or the adenine concentrations found in chemically-defined and complex fermentation samples. This method relies on the selective precolumn derivatization of adenine with chloroacetaldehyde to form the fluorescent adenine adduct 1,N6-ethenoadenine. The derivatized adenine can then be resolved from other components found in samples with reverse phase HPLC and selectively monitored with fluorescence. This method was then used to study the adenine nutritional requirements of adenine auxotrophs of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The adenine content of individual yeast extract powders was examined in relation to the cell mass (dry cell weight, DCW) achieved in culture media formulated with these powders. A general increase in DCW was observed with increasing adenine concentration in the yeast extract. Conversely, we observed that as adenine concentration increased in complex media the expression levels of a heterologous protein decreased. This method also allowed us to examine the adenine/DCW ratio in both steady-state continuous culture and batch culture. In both cases, the total in vivo adenine content as measured by the amount of adenine utilized from the culture media was estimated to be ca. 25-40 mg/g DCW. However, data suggest that this value is in excess of what is strictly required for cell growth and represents the quantity of adenine required to saturate intracellular pools of adenine or adenine metabolites. A minimum requirement for cell growth is at least as low as 12.5 mg of adenine/g of cells.