Additional molecular support for the new chordate phylogeny

  title={Additional molecular support for the new chordate phylogeny},
  author={Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Delsuc and Georgia Tsagkogeorga and Nicolas Lartillot and Herv{\'e} Philippe},
Recent phylogenomic analyses have suggested tunicates instead of cephalochordates as the closest living relatives of vertebrates. In direct contradiction with the long accepted view of Euchordates, this new phylogenetic hypothesis for chordate evolution has been the object of some skepticism. We assembled an expanded phylogenomic dataset focused on deuterostomes. Maximum‐likelihood using standard models and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using the CAT site‐heterogeneous mixture model of amino… 

A phylogenomic framework and timescale for comparative genomics and evolutionary developmental biology of tunicates

This study offers a reference phylogenetic framework and first tentative timescale for tunicates, allowing a direct comparison with vertebrate model species in future comparative genomics and evolutionary developmental biology studies.

An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models

An updated phylogenetic framework for tunicates is provided based on phylogenetic analyses using the most realistic evolutionary models currently available for ribosomal molecules and an unprecedented taxonomic sampling and reveals that most Aplousobranchia evolve at extremely high rates involving changes in secondary structure of their 18S rRNA.

Tunicate mitogenomics and phylogenetics: peculiarities of the Herdmania momus mitochondrial genome and support for the new chordate phylogeny

This is the first mitogenomic study supporting the new chordate phylogeny revealed by recent phylogenomic analyses and illustrates the beneficial effects of an increased taxon sampling coupled with the use of more realistic amino acid substitution models for the reconstruction of animal phylogeny.

Bilaterian phylogeny: a broad sampling of 13 nuclear genes provides a new Lophotrochozoa phylogeny and supports a paraphyletic basal acoelomorpha.

A new phylogeny not only agrees with most classical molecular results but also provides new insights into the relationships between lophotrochozoans and challenges the results obtained using high-throughput strategies, highlighting the problems associated with the current trend to increase gene number rather than taxa.

MiRNAs as promising phylogenetic markers for inferring deep metazoan phylogeny and in support of Olfactores hypothesis

This is the first attempt to apply miRNA sequences in interpreting Chordata phylogeny, and it is reckoned miRNAs as promising phylogenetic markers for illuminating deuterostome evolution.

Accelerated Evolutionary Rate of Housekeeping Genes in Tunicates

Tunicates evolved on average about two times faster than the other chordates, yet the degree of this acceleration varied extensively upon genes and upon lineages, suggesting that for this set of housekeeping genes, the accelerated evolution of tunicates is plausibly due to an elevated mutation rate rather than to particular selective effects.

Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions

The relationships of the five main metazoan lineages—Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Bilateria—remain subject to conflicting topologies according to different taxonomic samples and analytical approaches.

Phylotranscriptomic consolidation of the jawed vertebrate timetree

A new bioinformatic pipeline is developed to assemble large and accurate phylogenomic datasets from RNA sequencing and it is found to be successful and highly cost-effective and to provide a reference framework for the evolutionary history of jawed vertebrates.

A phylogenomic approach to resolve the arthropod tree of life.

It is shown that phylogenomic data can substantially advance the understanding of arthropod evolution and resolve several conflicts among existing hypotheses.

What is the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes? The reconciliation between mitochondrial and nuclear data in the Insecta class phylogeny

It is shown for the first time that mitogenomic data agrees with nuclear and morphological data for several of the most controversial insect evolutionary relationships, adding a new independent source of evidence to study relationships among insect orders.



Molecular phylogeny and divergence times of deuterostome animals.

It is found that most major lineages of deuterostomes arose prior to the Cambrian Explosion of fossils and that several lineages had originated before periods of global glaciation in the Precambrian.

Metaphylogeny of 82 gene families sheds a new light on chordate evolution

It is shown that the urochordate phyla is the vertebrate sister group and that gene loss played a major role in structuring the uoChordate genome.

Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life

This data reinforce several previously identified clades that split deeply in the animal tree, unambiguously resolve multiple long-standing issues for which there was strong conflicting support in earlier studies with less data, and provide molecular support for the monophyly of molluscs, a group long recognized by morphologists.

Improvement of molecular phylogenetic inference and the phylogeny of Bilateria

The sister-group relationship of Platyhelminthes and Annelida to the exclusion of Mollusca, contradicting the Neotrochozoa hypothesis, and, with a lower statistical support, the paraphyly of Deuterostomia are discussed in an evo–devo framework.

Urochordates are monophyletic within the deuterostomes.

A detailed phylogenetic analysis of urochordates based on comparisons of 10 new u rochordate 18S ribosomal DNA sequences with other uroChordate sequences in GenBank suggests strongly that uro chordates form a monophyletic clade within the deuterostomes.

Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida

To study the relationships among all deuterostome groups, an alignment of more than 35,000 homologous amino acids is assembled, including new data from a hemichordate, starfish and Xenoturbella and it is concluded that chordates are monophyletic.

Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates

It is shown that phylogenetic analyses of the genome sequencing of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica provide compelling evidence that tunicates, and not cephalochordates, represent the closest living relatives of vertebrates.

The phylogenetic position of the pterobranch hemichordates based on 18S rDNA sequence data.

  • K. Halanych
  • Biology
    Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
  • 1995
It is suggested that ciliated gill slits and the dorsal hollow nerve chord are pleisomorphic features of the Deuterostomia, the last common ancestor of the hemichordates and echinoderms.


Many questions persist concerning relationships within Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, poriferan monophyly, and the placement of many less-studied taxa (e.g., kinorhynchs, gastrotrichs, gnathostomulids, and entoprocts).

Evolution of the chordate body plan: new insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla.

The nesting of the pterobranchs within the enteropneusts dramatically alters the view of the evolution of the chordate body plan and suggests that the ancestral deuterostome more closely resembled a mobile worm-like enteropNEust than a sessile colonial pterOBranch.