Additional doping of phosphorus and/or sulfur into nitrogen-doped carbon for efficient oxygen reduction reaction in acidic media.


Phosphorus and/or sulfur are additionally doped into N-doped carbon (NDC) using phosphoric acid and cysteine. The resulting catalysts demonstrate excellent oxygen reduction activities coupled with high stabilities in acidic media. Specially, additional S-doping in NDC reveals nearly 2.5 times higher activity than that of NDC at 0.75 V (vs. RHE). 
DOI: 10.1039/c2cp44147k


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