Adaptive microbial response to low-level benzalkonium chloride exposure.

  title={Adaptive microbial response to low-level benzalkonium chloride exposure.},
  author={G{\"u}nter Kampf},
  journal={The Journal of hospital infection},
  volume={100 3},
  • G. Kampf
  • Published 1 November 2018
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of hospital infection

Nonsynonymous mutations in fepR are associated with Listeria adaptation to low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride, but not increased survival in use level concentrations of benzalkonium chloride

Findings from the study show that individual Listeria strains can acquire genetic adaptations that confer resistance to low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride, but these genetic adaptations don’t increase Listersia survival when exposed to concentrations of Benzalkonia chloride used for food contact surface sanitation.

Persistence against benzalkonium chloride promotes rapid evolution of tolerance during periodic disinfection

E. coli displays persistence against a widely used disinfectant, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), and the fitness cost incurred by BAC tolerance turns into a fitness benefit in the presence of antibiotics, suggesting a selective advantage of BAC-tolerant mutants in antibiotic environments.

Contribution of Time, Taxonomy, and Selective Antimicrobials to Antibiotic and Multidrug Resistance in Wastewater Bacteria.

The results reveal that time, taxonomy, and selection by TCS and BC impact features of cross-resistance patterns among diverse wastewater microorganisms, which could reflect the variety of factors influencing resistance patterns relevant to a community microbiome.

Common Plant-Derived Terpenoids Present Increased Anti-Biofilm Potential against Staphylococcus Bacteria Compared to a Quaternary Ammonium Biocide

Three common plant-derived terpenoids were compared to a typical quaternary ammonium biocide against both planktonic and biofilm cells of two widespread Staphylococcus species to indicate their significant anti-biofilm potential and advocate for their further promising use as anti- biofilm agents.

Evaluation of the Bactericidal Activity of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride in 2-Propanol against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains with Adaptive Resistance to this Active Substance According to European Standards

Disinfection parameters of the tested substance as determined by suspension methods were not sufficient to achieve the required bactericidal reduction in the carrier method for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and all its adapted isolates.

N-chlorosuccinimide enhancing the antimicrobial effect of benzalkonium chloride on biofilm Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its interaction mechanisms

A new method to effectively enhance the antimicrobial efficiency of quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants and reduce bacterial resistance is provided, as well as a scientific guidance for the development of new antimicrobial products.

Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteria: a Feared Contamination Risk in Water-Based Pharmaceutical Products

The role of Bcc bacteria as a potential public health problem, the mechanisms behind their success as contaminants of pharmaceutical products, particularly in the presence of biocides, the difficulties encountered in their detection, and the preventive measures applied during manufacturing processes to control contamination with these objectionable microorganisms are addressed.

Efflux Pump-Driven Antibiotic and Biocide Cross-Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Different Ecological Niches: A Case Study in the Development of Multidrug Resistance in Environmental Hotspots

This is the first comparison of antibiotic-biocide cross-resistance in samples isolated from different ecological niches and serves as a confirmation of laboratory-based studies on biocide adapted isolates.

Preliminary Study on Disinfectant Susceptibility/Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from Slaughtered Village Free-Range Chickens in Nairobi, Kenya

This study has demonstrated resistance of the bacterial isolates to various disinfectants at recommended user concentrations, although some of them were susceptible at higher concentration(s) and lower concentrations.



Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of benzalkonium chloride on the competitiveness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in continuous culture.

The results indicate the importance of environmental conditions on selection and maintenance of biocide adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Adaptation to benzalkonium chloride and ciprofloxacin affects biofilm formation potential, efflux pump and haemolysin activity of Escherichia coli of dairy origin

The findings especially in reference to post-adaptation upgradation of BFP status of non-resistant isolates seems to be providing an insight into the process of conversion ofnon-resistant isolate into resistant ones with enhanced BFP, and suggest a role of food chain in emergence of antimicrobial resistances.

Subminimal Inhibitory Concentrations of the Disinfectant Benzalkonium Chloride Select for a Tolerant Subpopulation of Escherichia coli with Inheritable Characteristics

The results indicate that there are several different mechanisms responsible for the regrowth of a tolerant subpopulation in BC, both BC-specific and general stress responses, and that sub-MIC of BC may select for phenotypic variants in a sensitive E. coli culture.

Resistant Mechanism Study of Benzalkonium Chloride Selected Salmonella Typhimurium Mutants

Benzalkonium chloride is one of the invaluable biocides that is extensively used in healthcare settings as well as in the food processing industry. After exposing wild-type Salmonella Typhimurium

Postadaptational Resistance to Benzalkonium Chloride and Subsequent Physicochemical Modifications of Listeria monocytogenes

The changes in cell surface antigens, efflux pump utilization, and fatty acid profiles suggest that different mechanisms are used by resistant and sensitive strains for adaptation to BC, and efflux pumps are the major mechanism of adaptation in sensitive strains.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells adapted to benzalkonium chloride show resistance to other membrane-active agents but not to clinically relevant antibiotics.

Characteristics accompanying resistance included alterations in outer membrane proteins, uptake of BKC, cell surface charge and hydrophobicity, and fatty acid content of the cytoplasmic membrane, although no evidence was found for alterations in LPS.

Induction of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains after Adaptation to Disinfectant Commonly Used on Farms in Vietnam

The results suggest that the mass usage of commercial disinfectants, many of which contain QACs, is potentially a contributing factor on the generation and maintenance of AMR in animal production in Vietnam.