Adaptive Perspectives: Case-Based Reasoning with TYRO, the Graphic Designer's Apprentice


TYROS [MACNEIL 891 basic tool set has been expanded to include editors which allow a graphic designer to take a "Program by Designing" approach to building a case library of basic design processes. Adaptation and augmentation of the case library takes place as trial layouts reveal failure conditions. Rule objects are formed as combinations of Condition objects which trap the failure states and present cases which have been modified to avoid the problem state. The resulting layout is a network of constrained graphical objects capable of being reused in a range of similar contexts. INTRODUCTION Multiple perspective views on a data object have been part of computation for some time as a way of developing the abstractions necessary to fulfill the promise of object oriented programming [BOBROW STEFIK 861. Graphic Designers intuitively employ multiple perspectives as a way of organizing the problem space, rendering the communication more precise. Too often, however, these views are built by hand, outside of a computational environment. DESIGN EXAMPLE Our example domain is the map, which I hope will stand as a metaphor for finding one's way in a complex electronic information space. The design task is to build a perspective which a subway rider can use from the obviously too complex data of Fig. 1. Fig. 2 is the Boston MBTA route map. It was designed by Peter. Chermyeff/Cambridge7 Associates and follows in the information design tradition started by Henry Becks unsolicited proposal for a London Underground system map in 1933 [MEGGS 831. All extraneous detail is removed. The strict spatial disposition of elements is abandoned in favor of a simple, easy to follow typo/ graphic solution. Only three types of elements are needed: a text object and two graphic objects; the T-Stop which is just a rectangle with a white dot in it, and a variable length connector object which is just a rectangle. There is a short hierarchy of design considerations; at the top of the list is the constraint that text may never overlap another element. AUTOMATIC LAYOUT: REXATED WORK Jock MacKinlay's [MACKINLAY 861 approach to designing presentations of relational information was to develop very precise definitions of graphical languages that describe the graphical presentation's syntactic and semantic properties. He used this basis set and a compositional algebra to generate alternative design proposals which were filtered and ranked using expressiveness and effectiveness criteria matrices. Joe Mark's ANDD system for generating network diagrams automatically [MARKS 901 uses several rule-based expert systems; in one the rules encode the conditions under which the various network-model attributes and relations should be mapped onto certain graphical properties and syntactic relations. Another rule based

DOI: 10.1109/WVL.1990.128395

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@inproceedings{MacNeil1990AdaptivePC, title={Adaptive Perspectives: Case-Based Reasoning with TYRO, the Graphic Designer's Apprentice}, author={Ron MacNeil}, booktitle={VL}, year={1990} }