Adaptations in scale insects.

@article{Gullan1997AdaptationsIS,
  title={Adaptations in scale insects.},
  author={Penny Jean Gullan and M. Kosztarab},
  journal={Annual review of entomology},
  year={1997},
  volume={42},
  pages={23-50}
}
Many unusual features of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) can be explained as historical legacy. Developmental specializations in ancestral coccoids resulted in a neotenous adult female and a drastic metamorphosis of the male. Subsequent evolution led to numerous, often convergently derived, adaptations to parasitic life on higher plants. The sedentary lifestyle of female scale insects has favored the evolution of appendage reduction or loss, gross changes in body shape, and protective wax… CONTINUE READING
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