Adaptations for marine habitat and the effect of Triassic and Jurassic predator pressure on development of decompression syndrome in ichthyosaurs

@article{Rothschild2012AdaptationsFM,
  title={Adaptations for marine habitat and the effect of Triassic and Jurassic predator pressure on development of decompression syndrome in ichthyosaurs},
  author={Bruce M. Rothschild and Zheng Xiaoting and L. D. Martin},
  journal={Naturwissenschaften},
  year={2012},
  volume={99},
  pages={443-448}
}
Decompression syndrome (caisson disease or the “the bends”) resulting in avascular necrosis has been documented in mosasaurs, sauropterygians, ichthyosaurs, and turtles from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, but it was unclear that this disease occurred as far back as the Triassic. We have examined a large Triassic sample of ichthyosaurs and compared it with an equally large post-Triassic sample. Avascular necrosis was observed in over 15 % of Late Middle Jurassic to Cretaceous… 

Absence of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs and Its Implications for Triassic Mesopelagic Paleoecology

TLDR
It is most likely that Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs were ‘ram-feeders’, without any beaked-whale-like suction feeder among them, which matches the fossil record of coleoids, which indicates the absence of soft-bodied deepwater species in the Triassic.

Palaeoepidemiology in extinct vertebrate populations: factors influencing skeletal health in Jurassic marine reptiles

TLDR
The results show that the incidence of pathologies is dependent on taxon, with the small-bodied genus Stenopterygius exhibiting fewer skeletal pathologies than other genera, and the quantification of the occurrence of pathology within taxa and across guilds is critical to constructing more detailed hypotheses regarding changes in the prevalence of skeletal injury and disease through Earth history.

Early Triassic Marine Biotic Recovery: The Predators' Perspective

TLDR
The data indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards, and that a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher troPHic levels within ecosystems became apparent.

Pathological survey on Temnodontosaurus from the Early Jurassic of southern Germany

TLDR
According to the analysis, most observed pathologies in Temnodontosaurus are force-induced traumas with signs of healing, possibly inflicted during aggressive interactions with conspecifics.

Skeletal pathologies track body plan evolution in ichthyosaurs

TLDR
It is proposed that the occurrence of ankylosed zygapophyses in the caudal peak of Triassic ichthyosaurs could represent a functional by-product of their primitive ‘eel-like’ swimming, and increased instances of broken ribs in Jurassic ICHthyosaurs may infer ramming or tail strike behaviours that characterise morphologically ‘fish-like' marine tetrapods, such as modern toothed whales.

A new Lower Cretaceous ichthyosaur from Russia reveals skull shape conservatism within Ophthalmosaurinae

TLDR
The skull of a new basal ophthalmosaurine ichthyosaur, Leninia stellans gen. et sp.

Two types of bone necrosis in the Middle Triassic Pistosaurus longaevus bones: the results of integrated studies

TLDR
Evidence of septic necrosis in the proximal articular surface of the femur of a marine reptile, Pistosaurus longaevus, from the Middle Triassic of Poland and Germany is reported, the oldest recognition of septic necrosis associated with septic arthritis in the fossil record so far.

The Permian and Triassic in the Albanian Alps

The sedimentary succession of the Permian to Middle Triassic of the Albanian Alps is described, as part of the eastern Adria passive margin towards the Tethys. A carbonate ramp deepening towards NE

Tuberculosis-like respiratory infection in 245-million-year-old marine reptile suggested by bone pathologies

TLDR
An apparent infection-mediated periosteal reaction affecting the dorsal ribs in a Middle Triassic eosauropterygian historically referred to as ‘Proneusticosaurus’ silesiacus is document, representing the earliest identified evidence for pneumonia.

Unusual intraosseous fossilized soft tissues from the Middle Triassic Nothosaurus bone

TLDR
Unexpected fossilized structures from the cortical region of bone identified in isolated skeletal remains of Middle Triassic nothosaurs from Upper Silesia, Poland seem to have been built of extensible muscle layers which prevent the vessel damage during rapid ascent.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 70 REFERENCES

The affinities and ecology of Triassic ichthyosaurs

The resolution of the problem of ichthyosaurian affinities has been complicated and prolonged by an emphasis on the morphology of Jurassic ichthyosaurs, some 30 to 40 m.y. younger than the earliest

Warm-Blooded “Sea Dragons”?

  • R. Motani
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Science
  • 2010
TLDR
It is reported that some ancient reptiles from the Age of Dinosaurs may have been able to sustain a constant body temperature (i.e., homeothermy), similar to today's marine mammals.

The evolution of thunniform locomotion and heat conservation in scombrid fishes: New insights based on the morphology of Allothunnus fallai

TLDR
It is suggested that the shift in red muscle position and changes in central circulation preceded the evolution of red-muscle endothermy, contributing significantly to the ecological radiation and diversification of tunas during the Early Tertiary Period.

Regulation of Body Temperature by Some Mesozoic Marine Reptiles

TLDR
Data distribution reveals that these large marine reptiles were able to maintain a constant and high body temperature in oceanic environments ranging from tropical to cold temperate, and suggest high metabolic rates required for predation and fast swimming over large distances offshore.

Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs

TLDR
Shastasaurus is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs.

Tooth morphology and prey preference of Mesozoic marine reptiles

TLDR
The guilds present in six well-preserved faunas of the Jurassic and Cretaceous illustrate the structure of and changes in the large marine predator adaptive zone.

Diving behavior of immature, feeding Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus orientalis) in relation to season and area: the East China Sea and the Kuroshio–Oyashio transition region

Twenty-four archival tags were recovered from Pacific bluefin tuna previously released off Tsushima Island in the East China Sea. By analysis of the time-series data of the pressure and the ambient

Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives

Phylogeny and Zoogeography The Origin and Relationships of Early Chondrichthyans Eileen D. Grogan, Richard Lund, and Emily Greenfest-Allen Elasmobranch Phylogeny: A Mitochondrial Estimate Based on

Decompression syndrome and the evolution of deep diving physiology in the Cetacea

TLDR
Avascular osteonecrosis was found in the Oligocene basal odontocetes (Xenorophoidea) and in geologically younger mysticetes, such as Aglaocetus, considered as early “experiments” in repetitive deep diving, indicating that they independently converged on their similar specialized diving physiologies.

Phylogeny, systematics, and origin of the Ichthyosauria - the state of the art

TLDR
At the present state of knowledege, a defi nite decision on the origin and phylogenetic position of ichthyosaurs is still impossible, but descent from primarily anapsid ancestors and an origin from among the Parareptilia can not be excluded as an alternative to a diapsid origin of the group.
...