Adaptation to cold in arctic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation, and basal metabolic rate.

  title={Adaptation to cold in arctic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation, and basal metabolic rate.},
  author={P. F. Scholander and Raymond J. Hock and Vladimir. Walters and Laurence Irving},
  journal={The Biological bulletin},
  volume={99 2},
Maintenance of constant body temperature in a homoiothermic animal depends upon a balance between heat production and heat dissipation, and there are consequently three possible main avenues for climatic adaptation, (1) by body-to-air gradient, (2) by heat dissipation, and (3) by metabolic rate. There is no evidence of adaptive low body temperature in arctic mammals and birds, or high body temperature in tropical mammals and birds. The body-to-air gradient can be adapted only by means of… 

Evolved reductions in body temperature and the metabolic costs of thermoregulation in deer mice native to high altitude

The evolution of endothermy was instrumental to the diversification of birds and mammals, but the energetic demands of maintaining high body temperature could offset the advantages of endothermy in

Avian thermoregulation across age and seasons

This thesis studied how thermoregulatory development was affected by early life thermal environment and how body temperature was regulated and maintained outside of thermoneutrality and found that nest environment affected body temperature regulation, short-term growth and development in nestlings but that there also might be long-term effects on apparent survival.

Relation of Oxygen Consumption to Temperature in the Evening Grosbeak

The authors' studies of the eastern race of the Evening Grosbeak permit definition of its basal metabolic rate and lower limit of thermal neutrality, comment upon its temperature regulation in cold environments, and consideration of the bioenergetic problems which confront it and other small birds in winter.

Terrestrial Mammals in Cold

In addition to making seasonal adjustments, mammals that reside in cold-dominated regions such as the arctic may show climatic adaptations which distinguish them from mammals at lower latitudes.

Metabolic Supply of Heat

For birds and mammals heat is of obvious importance in arctic life. The preservation of warmth, however, is a requirement in all climates. As air warms in desert and tropical situations toward the

Staying hot to fight the heat-high body temperatures accompany a diurnal endothermic lifestyle in the tropics

It is hypothesized that high body temperatures enable T. tana to maintain a suitable gradient between ambient and body temperature to allow for passive heat dissipation, important in high-humidity environments where opportunities for evaporative cooling are rare.

Body weight and the energetics of temperature regulation.

  • B. McNab
  • Biology, Physics
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1970
1. The interactions of basal rate of metabolism, thermal conductance, body temperature, lower limit of thermoneutrality, and body weight in mammals are compatible with Newton9s law of cooling. 2. A

Thermal conductance and basal metabolic rate are part of a coordinated system for heat transfer regulation

The results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs.

Basal metabolism in tropical birds: latitude, altitude, and the ‘pace of life’

This data set encompassing more than 500 species, tropical birds had significantly lower BMR than temperate-breeding birds, and in contrast to several recent analyses, higher BMR in passerine birds than in non-passerines, independent of breeding latitude.



A Study of the Body Temperature of Birds

WITH regard to body temperature, animals are divided into two great groups, namely, warmblooded and cold blooded, the former including mammals and birds; the latter reptiles, amphibians, fishes, and


  • C. M. Bogert
  • Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1949
With their elaborate mechanisms to produce heat internally, the birds and mammals are appropriately characterized as endothermic, unlike the reptiles that derive heat internally.

Total and Tissue Respiration in Relation to Body Weight a Comparison of the Kelp Crab with Other Crustaceans and with Mammals

A review of the literature on the activity and metabolism of poikilothermal animals in different latitudes and a revision of the black basses (Micropterus and Huro).

Ascorbic acid and acclimatization to cold environment.

It seems that the acclimatization to low temperatures—and not only maintenance of life at the same temperatures—requires large quantities of ascorbic acid.

Location of the Testes and Body Temperature in Mammals

It lies close at hand to inquire as to whether in mammals there is a correlation between the body temperature of a given species and the fact that the testes may be located either intraABdominally or extraabdominally.

Body size and metabolism

In spite of the theoretical weakness of the surface law, the computation of basal metabolism to the unit of the body surface seems at present the most satisfactory method available of equalizing experimental results for differences in the size of experimental animals.

Measurement of Environmental Factors in the Tropical Rain-Forest of Panama

The measurements upon which this report is based were made during January-March, I924, on Barro Colorado Island in Gatun Lake in the Canal Zone on the Isthmus of Panama. For purposes of comparison

The Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanisms

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