Adaptation to cold in arctic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation, and basal metabolic rate.

@article{Scholander1950AdaptationTC,
  title={Adaptation to cold in arctic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation, and basal metabolic rate.},
  author={P. F. Scholander and Raymond J. Hock and Vladimir. Walters and Laurence Irving},
  journal={The Biological bulletin},
  year={1950},
  volume={99 2},
  pages={
          259-71
        }
}
Maintenance of constant body temperature in a homoiothermic animal depends upon a balance between heat production and heat dissipation, and there are consequently three possible main avenues for climatic adaptation, (1) by body-to-air gradient, (2) by heat dissipation, and (3) by metabolic rate. There is no evidence of adaptive low body temperature in arctic mammals and birds, or high body temperature in tropical mammals and birds. The body-to-air gradient can be adapted only by means of… 

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