Adaptation and mitigation

  title={Adaptation and mitigation},
  author={Constance I. Millar and Kenneth E. Skog and Duncan Crannell McKinley and Richard A. Birdsey and Christopher W. Swanston and Sarah J. Hines and Christopher W. Woodall and Elizabeth D. Reinhardt and David Lawrence Peterson and James M. Vose},
Forest ecosystems respond to natural climatic variability and human-caused climate change in ways that are adverse as well as beneficial to the biophysical environment and to society. Adaptation refers to responses or adjustments made—whether passive, reactive, or anticipatory—to climatic variability and change (Carter et al. 1994). Many adjustments occur whether humans intervene or not; for example, plants and animals shift to favorable habitats resulting in range expansion or contraction, as… CONTINUE READING