Acytota – associated kingdom of neglected life

  title={Acytota – associated kingdom of neglected life},
  author={Edward N. Trifonov and Eduard Kejnovsk{\'y}},
  journal={Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics},
  pages={1641 - 1648}
There is a huge variety of RNA- and DNA-containing entities that multiply within and propagate between cells across all kingdoms of life, having no cells of their own. Apart from cellular organisms, these entities (viroids, plasmids, mobile elements and viruses among others) are the only ones with distinct genetic identities but which are not included in any traditional tree of life. We suggest to introduce or, rather, revive the distinct category of acellular organisms, Acytota, as an… 

Horizontal transfer - imperative mission of acellular life forms, Acytota

This review focuses on some aspects of A Cytota, their “genomes” and life styles, the dominance of transposable elements and their evolutionary influence on other life forms in order to vindicate the Acytota as a life kingdom no more polyphyletic than other kingdoms and its members no more parasitic than otherLife forms.

Вiological effects of viroids

It is assumed, that viroids can become the reason of infectious diseases of the human because of features of structure or sequence nucleotides the viroid’s ribonucleic acid can replace by itself some cellular ribonuclear acids.

Nucleic acidsmovement and its relation to genome dynamics of repetitive DNA Is cellular and intercellular movement of DNA and RNAmolecules related to the evolutionary dynamic genome components?

It is proposed that ahighevolutionary dynamism of repetitive genome components is often related to the migration/movement of DNA or RNA molecules, and it is speculated that the cytoplasm is probably an ideal compartment for such evolutionary experiments.

Nucleic acids movement and its relation to genome dynamics of repetitive DNA

It is proposed that a high evolutionary dynamism of repetitive genome components is often related to the migration/movement of DNA or RNA molecules and it is speculated that the cytoplasm is probably an ideal compartment for such evolutionary experiments.

Genome sequence-based virus taxonomy using machine learning

This thesis applies machine learning techniques to classify the NCBI reference sequences of virus model species into seven Baltimore Classes, four host groups or hundreds of ICTV hierarchical classes, and provides a systematic experimental framework for apply machineLearning techniques to virus taxonomy.



Only six kingdoms of life

  • T. Cavalier-smith
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2004
Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that the overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life.

Viroids: petite RNA pathogens with distinguished talents.

Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.

It is proposed that a formal system of organisms be established in which above the level of kingdom there exists a new taxon called a "domain." Life on this planet would be seen as comprising three domains, the Bacteria, the Archaea, and the Eucarya, each containing two or more kingdoms.

The ecology of the genome — mobile DNA elements and their hosts

An analogy is developed between the components of the genome, including mobile DNA elements, and an ecological community.

Endogenous viruses: insights into viral evolution and impact on host biology

It is argued that the conflict between hosts and viruses has led to the invention and diversification of molecular arsenals, which, in turn, promote the cellular co-option of endogenous viruses.

Relicts and models of the RNA world

Molecular and functional properties of viruses and viroids may be considered as examples or models of the structures and replication mechanisms, which might have been used for the replication of the early biopolymers.

Giant viruses coexisted with the cellular ancestors and represent a distinct supergroup along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya

This work reconstructs phylogenies describing the evolution of proteomes and protein domain structures of cellular organisms and double-stranded DNA viruses with medium-to-very-large proteomes (giant viruses) and proposes that viruses mediate gene transfer between cells and crucially enhance biodiversity.

Characterization of the pufferfish (Fugu) genome as a compact model vertebrate genome

The characterization of the small genome (400 Mb) of the tetraodontoid fish, Fugu rubripes, shows that the haploid genome contains 400 Mb of DNA, of which more that 90% is unique.

Viroids: the minimal non‐coding RNAs with autonomous replication

Origin and evolution of plasmids

  • C. Kado
  • Biology
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  • 2004
The promiscuous and selfish nature of plasmids is demonstrated by their ability to genetically engineer their host so that the host cell is best able to cope and survive in hostile environments.