The main issue for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia is the prevention of relapse. About 55% of patients relapse and the risk can partially be predicted by prognostic factors, particularly cytogenetics. A number of strategies can attempt to reduce the relapse risk. Intensification of induction therapy has been attempted but there is as yet no convincing evidence that survival is improved. Transplantation of either allogeneic or autologous stem cells does not seem to offer major survival advantage overall or within risk groups. Improved understanding of resistance mechanisms and the identification of new risk factors may enable the development of a more targeted approach to therapy.