Acute liver failure in Sweden: etiology and outcome

  title={Acute liver failure in Sweden: etiology and outcome},
  author={Gu Wei and Annika Bergquist and Ulrika Broomé and Stefan C. Lindgren and Sven Wallerstedt and Sven Alm{\'e}r and Per Sangfelt and {\AA}ke Danielsson and Hanna Sandberg-Gertz{\'e}n and Lars L{\"o}{\"o}f and Hanne Prytz and Einar S. Bj{\"o}rnsson},
  journal={Journal of Internal Medicine},
Objective.  To determine the causes and outcome of all patients with acute liver failure (ALF) in Sweden 1994–2003 and study the diagnostic accuracy of King's College Hospital (KCH) criteria and the model for end‐stage liver disease (MELD) score with transplant‐free deaths as a positive outcome. 

Drug‐induced acute liver failure in children and adults: Results of a single‐centre study of 128 patients

This work reviewed the implicated drugs, clinical features, laboratory characteristics and outcome of patients with drug‐induced ALF (DIALF), and analysed the predictors of mortality and their relationship with MELD, KCC, and ALFSG prognostic index.


This review aims to compose the current knowledge on epidemiology, mechanisms, and prognosis in ALF, and to give a perspective for future studies in this field.

Characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute liver failure admitted to Australian and New Zealand intensive care units

Patients with acute liver failure in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) are diagnosed with chronic liver failure and the prognosis is poor, particularly for those with cirrhosis of the liver.

[Multiple organ manifestations of liver failure in acute small bowel obstruction].

Mechanisms of pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of multiple organ failure syndrome in patients with acute small bowel obstruction are analyzed.

[Acute liver failure].

The King's College criteria and the Clichy criteria are used as prognostic tools for the indication for LT and potentially, plasmapheresis (full plasma exchange) offers a survival benefit for ALF patients who do not undergo LT.

Long-term follow-up of patients with acute liver failure of indeterminate aetiology

Patients with acute liver failure of indeterminate cause seem to differ from those with obvious aetiology in clinical and biochemical presentation but are similar to other controls, and the overall long-term outcome seems to be similar in patients with an unknown aETiology as in those with a specific aetiological.

Autoimmunity in Indeterminate Etiologies of Acute Liver Failure: Is This Autoimmune Liver Disease or an Autoimmune Phenotype to Drug Toxicity?

  • N. MahmudK. Forde
  • Medicine
    Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • 2020
A large proportion of cases of acute liver failure do not have a clearly identifiable cause despite thorough evaluation, and the proportion of these "indeterminate" ALF cases ranges from 11% to 43%, depending on study setting and geography.

Acute liver failure in children: 20-year experience.

Metabolic and infectious etiologies were responsible for most of the acute liver failure cases and clinical encephalopathy may not be present in children.

[Drug-induced liver injury as predominant cause of acute liver failure in a monocenter study].

In Europe ALF etiologies exhibit a North-South divide, and in Germany the most common cause for ALF is idiosyncratic pharmacological intoxication followed by acute hepatitis B.

Acute Liver Failure.

An evidence base for practice is emerging for supportive care, and a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder, especially in relation to hepatic encephalopathy, will probably soon lead to further improvements in survival rates.



Acute liver failure: Clinical features, outcome analysis, and applicability of prognostic criteria

It is concluded that early prognostication is needed in patients with ALF to assist decision making regarding OLT and the fulfillment of KCH criteria usually predicts a poor outcome, but a lack of fulfillment does not predict survival.

A model to predict survival in patients with end‐stage liver disease

The MELD scale is a reliable measure of mortality risk in patients with end‐stage liver disease and suitable for use as a disease severity index to determine organ allocation priorities in patient groups with a broader range of disease severity and etiology.

Classification, etiology, and considerations of outcome in acute liver failure.

A variety of different hematologic, biochemical, and clinical features can be used as predictive indices of the likely outcome and in determining the approach to treatment in acute liver failure.

Fulminant hepatic failure: Outcome after listing for highly urgent liver transplantation—12 years experience in the nordic countries

  • B. BrandsæterK. Höckerstedt K. Bjøro
  • Medicine
    Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • 2002
A high transplantation rate was observed among patients listed for a highly urgent liver transplantation because of fulminant hepatic failure, and patients with paracetamol intoxication had both a higher mortality without transplantation and a higher withdrawal rate attributable to improved condition.

Etiology and outcome for 295 patients with acute liver failure in the United States.

  • F. SchiødtE. Atillasoy W. M. Lee
  • Medicine
    Liver transplantation and surgery : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • 1999
Age did not differ between survivors and nonsurvivors, perhaps reflecting a selection bias for patients transferred to liver transplant centers, but showed a trend toward affecting both survival and transplantation rate.

MELD accurately predicts mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis

MELD is a useful clinical tool for gauging mortality and guiding treatment decisions in patients with AH, particularly those complicated by ascites and/or encephalopathy, and maintains some practical and statistical advantages over DF in predicting mortality rate in these patients.

Prediction of survival for patients with fulminant hepatic failure

The mortality of patients with advanced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is high, and although liver support devices may in time have a place in treatment, liver transplantation remains the only