Acute ischemic stroke patterns in infective and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis: a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although infective endocarditis (IE) and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) are associated with cardioembolic stroke, differences in the nature of these conditions may result in differences in associated stroke patterns. We compared patterns of acute and recurrent ischemic stroke in IE and NBTE, using diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). METHODS Using ICD-9 diagnostic codes and medical record review, we identified 362 patients (387 episodes) with IE and 14 patients with NBTE. Thirty-five patients (with 27 episodes of IE, 9 NBTE) who underwent 36 initial and 29 follow-up DWI scans were selected for this study. DWI lesion size, number, and location were compared between groups and correlated with stroke syndromes and endocarditis features. RESULTS DWI was abnormal in all but 2 patients. Four acute stroke patterns were identified: (1) single lesion, (2) territorial infarction, (3) disseminated punctate lesions, and (4) numerous small (<10 mm) and medium (10 to 30 mm) or large (>30 mm) lesions in multiple territories. All patients with NBTE exhibited pattern 4, whereas those with IE exhibited patterns 1, 2, 3, and 4 (6, 2, 8 and 9 episodes, respectively). Seventy-five percent of patients with pattern 3 exhibited the clinical syndrome of embolic encephalopathy. Vegetation size, valve, and organisms had no correlation with stroke patterns. CONCLUSION DWI has utility in differentiating between IE and NBTE. Patients with NBTE uniformly have multiple, widely distributed, small and large strokes, whereas patients with IE exhibit a panoply of stroke patterns.

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@article{Singhal2002AcuteIS, title={Acute ischemic stroke patterns in infective and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis: a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study.}, author={Aneesh Bhim Singhal and Mehmet Akif Topçuoğlu and Ferdinando Buonanno}, journal={Stroke}, year={2002}, volume={33 5}, pages={1267-73} }