Acute hormone responses to heavy resistance lower and upper extremity exercise in young versus old men

@article{Hkkinen1998AcuteHR,
  title={Acute hormone responses to heavy resistance lower and upper extremity exercise in young versus old men},
  author={Keijo H{\"a}kkinen and Arto J. Pakarinen and Robert Usher Newton and William J. Kraemer},
  journal={European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology},
  year={1998},
  volume={77},
  pages={312-319}
}
Abstract Acute hormone responses of growth hormone (GH), total and free testosterone (TT and FT) and cortisol (C) to heavy resistance isometric exercise were examined in ten young men [YM 26.5 (SD 4.8) years] and ten old men [OM 70.0 (SD 3.7) years]. Loading conditions of the same relative intensity were created for the lower and upper extremity actions separately as well as for both of them together – lower extremity exercise (LE; knee extension), upper extremity exercise (UE; bench press… 
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TLDR
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TLDR
Hormonal and metabolic responses to CON, ECC and CON-ECC muscle actions in order to develop appropriate resistance exercise protocols and equipment for both athletes and patients recovering from injury indicate that GH response depends not only on the intensity and quantity of exercise, but also on the type of muscle contraction and degree of the motor units recruitment.
EFFECTS OF AGE ON TESTOSTERONE RESPONSES TO RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND MUSCULOSKELETAL VARIABLES IN MEN
TLDR
Middle-aged and older men showed similar relative T responses to those of younger men to a single bout of high-intensity resistance exercise, however, T levels were related to strength and muscle mass only in middle-aged or older men.
Aerobic and neuromuscular performance capacity of physically active females with early or long-term rheumatoid arthritis compared to matched healthy women
TLDR
The physically active females even with LRA could maintain their aerobic fitness comparable to that of age matched healthy subjects, however, the neuromuscular profile suggests that especially explosive strength characteristics of the leg extensors cannot be maintained at the normal level with habitual physical activities.
Effects of prolonged hypertrophic resistance training on acute endocrine responses in young and older men.
TLDR
It is suggested that, in general, YM demonstrate greater adaptability within the endocrine system compared with OM, however, adaptability in growth hormone response was associated with larger training-induced gains independent of age.
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