Acute crack cocaine exposure induces genetic damage in multiple organs of rats

@article{Moretti2016AcuteCC,
  title={Acute crack cocaine exposure induces genetic damage in multiple organs of rats},
  author={Eduardo Gregolin Moretti and Ver{\^o}nica Quispe Yujra and Samuel Rangel Cl{\'a}udio and Marcelo Jos{\'e} Dias Silva and Wagner Vilegas and Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira and Flavia de Oliveira and Daniel Araki Ribeiro},
  journal={Environmental Science and Pollution Research},
  year={2016},
  volume={23},
  pages={8104-8112}
}
Crack cocaine is a very toxic product derived from cocaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic damage in multiple organs of rats following acute exposure to crack cocaine. A total of 20 Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n = 5), as follows: 0, 4.5, 9, and 18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of crack cocaine administered by intraperitoneal route (i.p.). All animals were killed 24 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The results showed that crack cocaine increased the number… 
Inhibition of Toll Like Signaling Pathway Is Associated With Genomic Instability in Rat Liver Exposed to Crack Cocaine
TLDR
Crack cocaine inhibited toll like signaling pathway whilst being associated with genomic instability in rat liver cells in all groups exposed to crack cocaine.
Genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response induced by crack-cocaine: relevance to carcinogenesis
TLDR
The notion that crack-cocaine is a chemical carcinogen as a result of genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced in mammalian and non-mammalian cells is consistent with the notion that the drug is associated with more intense effects when compared to other illicit drugs.
Repeated crack cocaine administration alters panic-related responses and delta FosB immunoreactivity in panic-modulating brain regions.
TLDR
These are the first observations performed with crack cocaine in a rodent model of anxiety/panic and contribute to a better understanding of the behavioral and neurobiological effects of crack cocaine.
Detoxification, oxidative stress, and cytogenotoxicity of crack cocaine in the brown mussel Perna perna
TLDR
The results demonstrated that crack cocaine is metabolized by CYP-like and GST activities in the gills, showing that the introduction of illicit drugs into coastal ecosystems must be considered a threat to marine organisms.
Exposure to crack cocaine causes adverse effects on marine mussels Perna perna.
Drugs of abuse from a different toxicological perspective: an updated review of cocaine genotoxicity
TLDR
The in vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of cocaine, along with the genotoxicity data from human exposure, especially in the context of “crack” smoking, were reviewed and some research gaps in this field identified.
Comet assay: an essential tool in toxicological research
TLDR
The present review aims at giving an overview about the evolution of this widely applicable method from the first description by Ostling and Johanson to the OECD Guideline 489 for the in vivo mammalian comet assay.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
Genomic Instability in Human Lymphocytes from Male Users of Crack Cocaine
TLDR
The results of this study reveal the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of crack cocaine use in human lymphocytes and pave the way for further research on cellular responses and the possible consequences of DNA damage, such as induction of irreversible neurological disease and cancer.
Sleep loss and acute drug abuse can induce DNA damage in multiple organs of mice
TLDR
Analysis of damaged cells by the tail moment data suggests that ecstasy is a genotoxic chemical at the highest concentrations tested, inducing damage in liver or brain cells after sleep deprivation in mice.
BRIEF REPORT: Single exposure to cocaine or ecstasy induces DNA damage in brain and other organs of mice
TLDR
It is demonstrated that cocaine and MDMA are potent genotoxins and all doses tested were able to induce DNA damage in blood cells.
Peripheral toxicity in crack cocaine use disorders
Cocaine mutagenicity and hepatocarcinogenicity evaluations in rodents.
TLDR
The results suggest that cocaine does not have a mutagenic effect on the mouse bone marrow cells or promoting activity on the rat hepatocarcinogenesis process.
Cocaine Hepatotoxicity in Mice: Histologic and Enzymatic Studies
The severity of hepatotoxicity in CF-1 mice given 5 daily doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg cocaine/kg body weight and sacrificed 24 hr after the last injection appeared to be dose-dependent. Using light
Cytogenetic biomonitoring of oral mucosa cells of crack cocaine users
TLDR
The data indicate that crack cocaine is able to induce chromosomal breakage and cellular death in oral mucosa cells of users as well as other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyolysis in oral cells.
Nuclear changes in oral mucosa of alcoholics and crack cocaine users
TLDR
The findings suggest that the use of crack cocaine induces clastogenic effects, whereas alcoholism is associated with higher degrees of keratinization in the floor of the mouth.
Antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential of grape juice concentrate in blood and liver of rats exposed to cadmium
TLDR
The results demonstrate that grape juice concentrate was able to exert antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activities in blood and liver cells of rats exposed to cadmium.
Early abstinence of crack-cocaine is effective to attenuate oxidative stress and to improve antioxidant defences
TLDR
Assessment of peripheral oxidative stress and antioxidant defences during two periods of crack-cocaine detoxification treatment and associated these changes with psychological morbidity suggest drug rehabilitation treatment was effective in decreasing oxidative damage represented by the reduction in biological markers.
...
...