BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diffusion-perfusion MRI in patients with anterior circulation occlusions has demonstrated salvage of threatened tissue after thrombolytic therapy. Similar studies have not been reported with posterior circulation occlusions. METHODS Patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated with intra-arterial thrombolytics were studied with multimodal MRI before treatment, several hours after treatment, and at day 7. RESULTS Ten patients were studied (9 men, 1 woman). Mean age was 70 years, and median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 14. In 6 patients imaged before treatment and at day 7, mean pretreatment diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume was 11 cm(3), and day 7, lesion volume was 2.6 cm(3). Significant mismatch was visualized in all 5 patients with pretreatment perfusion-diffusion imaging (mean, 73%; range, 49% to 99%). Late imaging obtained in 4 of these 5 patients demonstrated that mean posttreatment DWI lesion volume (21 cm(3)) was less than the mean initial perfusion lesion volume (62 cm(3)). Although there was no direct correlation between pretreatment DWI volume and initial NIHSS (r=-0.113), there was good correlation between pretreatment perfusion-weighted imaging volume and initial NIHSS (r=0.72). CONCLUSIONS In this first report of diffusion-perfusion MRI in patients with acute basilar artery occlusions treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis, significant mismatch was visualized on pretreatment studies, suggesting that large volumes of salvageable tissue were present. Final infarct volumes were smaller than pretreatment perfusion volumes, suggesting that substantial volumes of tissue were salvaged by thrombolytic reperfusion.