Acute and chronic effects of ketamine upon human memory: a review

@article{Morgan2006AcuteAC,
  title={Acute and chronic effects of ketamine upon human memory: a review},
  author={C. Morgan and H. Curran},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={2006},
  volume={188},
  pages={408-424}
}
IntroductionKetamine is attracting increasing research interest not only because of its powerful amnestic effects but also as a putative model of schizophrenia and as a substance with an expanding following of recreational users.ObjectiveThis article reviews the existing literature on the effects of acute ketamine on the memory of healthy volunteers and of repeated doses of ketamine in recreational users.Current trendsAlthough there have been relatively few, often methodologically diverse… Expand
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A critical overview of the knowledge gaps about the use of ketamine in depression is provided and some future research directions for the investigation of ketamines as a promising tool to develop novel more effective and fast acting antidepressants are suggested. Expand
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While used as paediatric and veterinary anaesthetic and for pain management, the nonselective NMDA (N-methyl-D- aspartate) antagonist ketamine also remains popular among recreational users. As such,Expand
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It is strongly suggested that subchronic ketamine induces significant changes in brain function that long exceed exposure to the drug, and that ketamine exposure in mice induces lasting cognitive impairments closely resembling those observed in human ketamine abusers. Expand
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The neurophysiology of ketamine: an integrative review
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A complicated and, at times, confusing picture of ketamine’s effects are revealed, it is stressed that much of this might be caused by use of different species, doses, and analytical methodologies and suggest strategies that future work could use to answer these problems. Expand
A comparison of the effects of ketamine and phencyclidine with other antagonists of the NMDA receptor in rodent assays of attention and working memory
TLDR
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Ketamine perturbs perception of the flow of time in healthy volunteers
TLDR
Ketamine induced selective impairments in timing, which could not be explained by more fundamental effects on the ability to hold information in WM, and suggest that ketamine may disturb timing by selectively impairing the way in which information is temporally manipulated within WM. Expand
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TLDR
The effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine on two forms of memory, free recall and recognition, as well as attention and behavior in 15 healthy volunteers are examined, suggesting that the NMDA receptor plays a direct role in two types of explicit memory. Expand
Acute Effects of Ketamine on Memory Systems and Psychotic Symptoms in Healthy Volunteers
TLDR
The data suggest that, in humans, ketamine produces a selective pattern of impairments to working, episodic, and procedural memory but not to perceptual priming, attention or aspects of executive functioning. Expand
Long-term effects of ketamine: evidence for a persisting impairment of source memory in recreational users.
TLDR
These findings suggest that repeated use of ketamine produces chronic impairments to episodic memory, and ketamine abusers exhibit a persisting deficit in source memory on day 3 but not in item recognition. Expand
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TLDR
It is indicated that frequent use of ketamine produces long-lasting impairments in episodic memory and aspects of retrieval from semantic memory, which accord with animal evidence of the effects of NMDA receptor blockade on memory. Expand
Ketamine impairs response inhibition and is positively reinforcing in healthy volunteers: a dose–response study
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The lack of residual effects in healthy volunteers on day-3 indicates that impairments found on day 3 in ketamine abusers are chronic effects, and the abuse of ketamine may be related to its capacity both to reinforce and to decrease response inhibition. Expand
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TLDR
This study characterizes the behavioral effects associated with ketamine and suggests that ketamine decreases verbal memory performance by interfering with early consolidation processes. Expand
Effect of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine on memory and conscious awareness in healthy volunteers
TLDR
Ketamine decreases episodic memory performance by impairing encoding, but not retrieval processes, and does not selectively impair subjective states of awareness associated with recognition memory as it has been seen in patients with schizophrenia. Expand
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TLDR
A case is here presented of long-term, high-dose ketamine use, in which the user described impaired recall and attention, and a subtle visual anomaly persisting after cessation of the habit. Expand
Semantic Priming after Ketamine Acutely in Healthy Volunteers and Following Chronic Self-Administration in Substance Users
TLDR
The inverse priming effect at the long SOA induced by acute ketamine was indicative of controlled processing impairments in ketamine users, and decreased priming for low-frequency words suggested that long-term ketamine abuse results in damage to the semantic store. Expand
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TLDR
Ketamine appears to induce acute and severe impairments of working, episodic and semantic memory as well as psychotogenic and dissociative effects and schizotypal symptomatology. Expand
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