Acute Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of White Phosphorus in Mute Swans, Cygnus olor

@article{Sparling1999AcuteTA,
  title={Acute Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of White Phosphorus in Mute Swans, Cygnus olor},
  author={Donald W. Sparling and Daniel D. Day and Patrice N. Klein},
  journal={Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
  year={1999},
  volume={36},
  pages={316-322}
}
Abstract. Among the waterfowl affected by white phosphorus (P4) at a military base in Alaska are tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter (C. buccinator) swans. To estimate the toxicity of P4 to swans and compare the toxic effects to those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we dosed 30 juvenile mute swans (C. olor) with 0 to 5.28 mg P4/kg body weight. The calculated LD50 was 3.65 mg/kg (95% CI: 1.40 to 4.68 mg/kg). However, many of the swans still had P4 in their gizzards after dying, as… 

Effects of white phosphorus on mallard reproduction

TLDR
Evidence is provided that productivity of free-ranging mallards may be impaired if they are exposed to white phosphorus at typical field levels and teratogenic effects were observed in embryos from hens dosed at all treatment levels.

Size and mass of grit in gizzards of sandhill cranes, tundra swans, and mute swans.

-Because it has been suggested that waterbirds may ingest lost or discarded lead fishing weights as grit, we examined grit in the gizzards of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis), Tundra Swans (Cygnus

Effect of feed granulometry on haematological parameters of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) at different stages of growth in Cte dIvoire

TLDR
The study was carried at the ISMOREL farm of Adiake in Cote d’Ivoire to determine the effect of feed’s grain size (the granulometry) on haematological parameters of Japanese quail according to the age, and showed a significant impact of the feed Granulometry on the white blood cells parameters.

Hematology, Plasma Chemistry, and Bacteriology of Wild Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) in Alaska

TLDR
Blood and cloacal swabs were collected from 100 wild Tundra Swans molting in northwestern Alaska, USA, to establish hematologic and serum chemistry reference values and to isolate enteric Salmonella spp.

Oxidative stress response of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) to mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in liver, kidney, and brain

TLDR
Results indicate that THg concentrations induced oxidative stress in terns, and suggest that histopathological, immunological, and behavioral effects may occur in tern as reported in other species.

Risk Assessment of White Phosphorus SUMMARY

  • Environmental Science
  • 2006
White phosphorus (WP, P4) has been used by the Norwegian armed forces in military shooting ranges in Norway and particles of WP have been found in sediments, soil and water samples from the areas. WP

Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of the captive long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus) in Iran.

BACKGROUND Although normal haematological and serum biochemical values for both pet and wild birds have been published, little information is available on the haematological and serum biochemical

The Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Profile of Adult Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

TLDR
The reference values and sex differences in the erythrocytic and serum biochemistry parameters of domestic adult quails (Coturnix coturnIX) are established and more research works should be carried out on quails to increase the information data base, especially in the tropics.

Mercury and Drought Along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. Effects on Blood and Organ Biochemistry and Histopathology of Snowy Egrets and Black-Crowned Night-Herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002–2006

TLDR
Hg-associated effects related to the immune system included alterations in specific white blood cells and lymphoid depletion in the bursa that were correlated with blood and tissue Hg that may have exacerbated Hg-related effects as reported previously for overall productivity.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 14 REFERENCES

TOXICITY OF WHITE PHOSPHORUS TO WATERFOWL: ACUTE EXPOSURE IN MALLARDS

TLDR
In mallards, one mechanism of P4 toxicity caused rapid (3 to 10 hr) mortality and had signs consistent with anoxia and a second, slower acting mechanism resulted in hepatic and renal pathology including extensive fat deposition in the liver and cellular necrosis.

White Phosphorus Poisoning of Waterfowl in an Alaskan Salt Marsh

TLDR
Evidence is gathered that feeding waterfowl are ingesting small particles of the highly toxic, incendiary munition P4 stored in the bottom anoxic sediments of shallow salt marsh ponds, which is the cause of this mortality of migrating dabbling ducks and swans in Eagle River Flats.

Different susceptibilities to white phosphorus poisoning among five species of ducks

TLDR
Three species of ducks that frequent an estuarine salt marsh in Alaska during migration die in large numbers from ingesting particles of white phosphorus, and the difference in susceptibility appears to be due to differences in feeding behavior and bill morphology.

Secondary poisoning of kestrels by white phosphorus

TLDR
This study shows that raptors can become intoxicated either by ingesting portions of digestive tracts containing white phosphorus pellets or by consuming tissues of P4-contaminated prey.

Blood changes in mallards exposed to white phosphorus

TLDR
Signs of exposure included changes in uric acid, creatinine, and total protein, which were consistent with reported liver and kidney damage due to this contaminant, and changes in white blood cells included a greater frequency of thrombocytes and fewer lymphocytes in dosed birds compared to controls.

Predation of ducks poisoned by white phosphorus: Exposure and risk to predators

TLDR
Although P4 varied widely among individuals, P4 was generally highest in the gizzard contents followed by fatty tissues such as fat depots and the skin, thus providing direct evidence of absorption of P4 by predators.

Persistence of white phosphorus (P4) particles in salt marsh sediments

Remediation of sediments at Eagle River Flats, Alaska, a salt marsh contaminated with solid particles of white phosphorus (P{sub 4}), may require severe alterations of the wetland by dredging,

ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN PLASMA, LIVER AND KIDNEY OF BLACK DUCKS AND MALLARDS

  • J. Franson
  • Physics, Biology
    Journal of wildlife diseases
  • 1982
TLDR
Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, and activity of OCT and AST occurred in both liver and kidney.

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl.

  • D. R. CoburnJ. B. Dewitt
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. American Pharmaceutical Association
  • 1950
Black and mallard ducks have been found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. The results of an investigation of the effects of poisoning from the administration of white phosphorus are

The role of lipoperoxidation in the pathogenesis of fatty livers induced by phosphorus poisoning in rats.

TLDR
The aim of this study was to establish an experimental procedure that can be used as a guide for the selection of winners and losers in the distribution of punishments in the criminal justice system.