Activity of the claw retractor muscle in stick insects in wall and ceiling situations

  title={Activity of the claw retractor muscle in stick insects in wall and ceiling situations},
  author={Philipp Busshardt and Stanislav N. Gorb and Harald Wolf},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  pages={1676 - 1684}
SUMMARY The activity of the middle part of the claw retractor muscle was examined in two species of stick insects (Carausius morosus and Cuniculina impigra). We performed electromyographic recordings while the animals were standing on a smooth or a rough surface of a platform in horizontal, vertical or inverted positions, as well as during rotations of the platform. We recorded tonic and phasic motor units. The tonic units were active all the time without significant differences in spike… Expand
Walking on smooth and rough ground: activity and timing of the claw retractor muscle in the beetle Pachnoda marginata peregrina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae)
The activity pattern of the claw retractor muscle of Pachnoda marginata peregrina beetles was examined and it was concluded that the muscle is controlled by the same basic activity pattern on different surfaces, with some adjustments that are due to sensory feedback. Expand
Ground reaction forces in vertically ascending beetles and corresponding activity of the claw retractor muscle on smooth and rough substrates
The main function of hind legs in ascending beetles in the second half of the stance thus probably prevented the animals from tilting away from the substrate, and significantly more spikes on the rough substrate than on the smooth one. Expand
Positive force feedback in development of substrate grip in the stick insect tarsus.
Findings indicate that campaniform sensilla can provide information about the effectiveness of the leg muscles in generating substrate adherence and can also produce positive force feedback that could contribute to the development of substrate grip and stabilization of the tarsal chain. Expand
Control strategies of gecko’s toe in response to reduced gravity
Shear-induced adhesion is one of the key properties for the gecko moving safely and quickly in a three-dimensional environment. The control strategies of such locomotion strongly relying on adhesionExpand
Chapter 10 – Locomotor Systems
In insect flight muscles, the muscular apparatus is minuscule compared to that of vertebrates, and their efficient movement on land and in the air is a major factor in the domination of terrestrial ecosystems by insects. Expand
Radial arrangement of Janus-like setae permits friction control in spiders
The morphological investigation revealed that hairy attachment pads of Cupiennius salei are arranged in a radial manner within the distal tarsus, and the direction of frictional forces is depending on leg placement and rotation. Expand
Insects Use Two Distinct Classes of Steps during Unrestrained Locomotion
Background Adaptive, context-dependent control of locomotion requires modulation of centrally generated rhythmic motor patterns through peripheral control loops and postural reflexes. Thus assumingExpand
Adhesive and frictional properties of tarsal attachment pads in two species of stick insects (Phasmatodea) with smooth and nubby euplantulae.
It is shown that smooth attachment pads are able to generate relatively stronger adhesion and friction on a flat smooth surface than on a rough one, whereas nubby pads are better adapted to generate stronger forces on a broader range of surfaces. Expand
Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)
Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight and Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Expand
The whole is more than the sum of all its parts: collective effect of spider attachment organs
It is concluded that the coordinated action of the legs is crucial for adhesion control and for fast and easy detachment, and the cumulative effect of anisotropic fibrillar adhesive structures could be potentially interesting for biomimetic applications, such as novel gripping devices. Expand


Sensory control of leg movement in the stick insect Carausius morosus
  • U. Bässler
  • Medicine, Mathematics
  • Biological Cybernetics
  • 2004
A model is presented which combines both a central programme and peripheral sensory influence which does not only determine the motor output but also determines the reactions to particular afferences. Expand
The tarso-pretarsal chordotonal organ as an element in cockroach walking
The regular discharges of the chordotonal organ could assure efficient and coordinated muscle contractions and movements during normal, unperturbed walking. Expand
Motor patterns for horizontal and upside down walking and vertical climbing in the locust
  • Duch, Pflüger
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1995
The motor patterns of the locust's flexor tibiae and metathoracic subcoxal joint muscles were compared during unrestrained horizontal walking, vertical climbing and walking upside-down hanging from a branch to describe how motor patterns are adjusted to the different requirements of various walking situations. Expand
Control of flexor motoneuron activity during single leg walking of the stick insect on an electronically controlled treadwheel.
It is shown that motoneurons of the flexor tibiae receive substantial common excitatory inputs during the stance phase and that the difference in resting membrane potential between slow and fast mot oneurons is likely to play a crucial role in their consecutive recruitment. Expand
Sensory Feedback During Active Movements of Stick Insects
In the stick insect Carausius momsus, the role of the chordotonal organ was investigated using a new experimental arrangement which artificially closes the femur-tibia control system and it was found that the control system counteracts experimentally applied velocity changes imposed during the middle part of the movements. Expand
Biomechanics of the movable pretarsal adhesive organ in ants and bees
A combined mechanical–hydraulic model for arolium movement is proposed, engaged by the action of the unguitractor, which mechanically extends the arolio, which deflates and moves back to its default position by elastic recoil of the cuticle. Expand
Elasticity and movements of the cockroach tarsus in walking
This biomechanical design can facilitate efficient use of the tarsus in walking while under active control by only a single muscle and may also be highly advantageous when cockroaches very rapidly traverse irregular terrain. Expand
Walking on smooth or rough ground: passive control of pretarsal attachment in ants
The control of attachment by the insect claw flexor system demonstrates how mechanical systems in the body periphery can simplify centralised, neuro-muscular feedback control. Expand
Function of a Muscle Whose Apodeme Travels Through a Joint Moved by Other Muscles: Why the Retractor Unguis Muscle in Stick Insects is Tripartite and has no Antagonist
Summary The course of the common apodeme of the tripartite retractor unguis muscle is described for the stick insects Carausius morosus and Acrophylla wulfingii. This apodeme travels through theExpand
Tarsal movements in flies during leg attachment and detachment on a smooth substrate.
By using normal and high-speed video recordings, the present study revealed that pulvilli are positioned on the surface in a particular way, as evidenced by splaying of the claws. Expand