Activity-dependent spinal cord neuromodulation rapidly restores trunk and leg motor functions after complete paralysis.

  title={Activity-dependent spinal cord neuromodulation rapidly restores trunk and leg motor functions after complete paralysis.},
  author={Andreas Rowald and Salif Komi and Robin Demesmaeker and Edeny Baaklini and Sergio D. Hernandez-Charpak and Edoardo Paoles and Hazael Montanaro and Antonino Mario Cassar{\`a} and Fabio Becce and Bryn A. Lloyd and Taylor Newton and Jimmy Ravier and Nawal Kinany and Marina D'Ercole and Aur{\'e}lie Paley and Nicolas Hankov and Camille Varescon and Laura A. McCracken and Molywan Vat and Miroslav Caban and Anne Watrin and Charlotte Jacquet and L{\'e}a Bole-Feysot and Cathal Harte and Henri Lorach and Andrea G{\'a}lvez and Manon Tschopp and Natacha Herrmann and Mo{\"i}ra Wacker and Lionel Geernaert and Isabelle Fodor and Valentin Radevich and Katrien Van Den Keybus and Gr{\'e}goire Eberle and Etienne Pralong and Maxime Roulet and J. B. Ledoux and Eleonora Fornari and Stefano Mandija and Loan Mattera and Roberto Martuzzi and Bruno Nazarian and Stefan Benkler and Simone Callegari and Nathan Greiner and Benjamin Fuhrer and M. Froeling and Nik Buse and Tim Denison and Rik Buschman and Christian Wende and Damien Ganty and J. Wangand A. Bakker and Vincent Delattre and Hendrik Lambert and Karen Minassian and Cornelis A. T. van den Berg and Anne Kavounoudias and Silvestro Micera and Dimitri Van de Ville and Quentin Barraud and Erkan Kurt and Niels Kuster and Esra Neufeld and Marco Capogrosso and Leonie Asboth and Fabien B. Wagner and Jocelyne Bloch and Gr{\'e}goire Courtine},
  journal={Nature medicine},
Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) targeting the dorsal roots of lumbosacral segments restores walking in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, EES is delivered with multielectrode paddle leads that were originally designed to target the dorsal column of the spinal cord. Here, we hypothesized that an arrangement of electrodes targeting the ensemble of dorsal roots involved in leg and trunk movements would result in superior efficacy, restoring more diverse motor activities after the… 

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