Activity‐dependent regulation of energy metabolism by astrocytes: An update

@article{Pellerin2007ActivitydependentRO,
  title={Activity‐dependent regulation of energy metabolism by astrocytes: An update},
  author={Luc Pellerin and Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore and Agn{\`e}s Aubert and S{\'e}bastien Serres and Michel Merle and Robert Costalat and Pierre Julius Magistretti},
  journal={Glia},
  year={2007},
  volume={55}
}
Astrocytes play a critical role in the regulation of brain metabolic responses to activity. One detailed mechanism proposed to describe the role of astrocytes in some of these responses has come to be known as the astrocyte‐neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (ANLSH). Although controversial, the original concept of a coupling mechanism between neuronal activity and glucose utilization that involves an activation of aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes and lactate consumption by neurons provides a… 
Astrocytes and energy metabolism
TLDR
The astrocytes energy metabolism may help understanding neuron-astrocyte interactions, and it is thought that the release of gliotransmitters into the extracellular space by regulated exocytosis supports a significant part of communication between astroCytes and neurons.
Fatty Acids in Energy Metabolism of the Central Nervous System
TLDR
This review made an attempt to reconcile β-oxidation of fatty acids by astrocytic mitochondria with the existing hypothesis on regulation of aerobic glycolysis and suggests that, under condition of neuronal excitation, both metabolic pathways may exist simultaneously.
Brain energetics (thought needs food)
  • L. Pellerin
  • Biology
    Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care
  • 2008
TLDR
A new concept based on metabolic compartmentalization between astrocytes and neurons is establishing itself as the leading paradigm that opens new perspectives in areas such as functional brain imaging and regulation of energy homeostasis.
Aerobic Production and Utilization of Lactate Satisfy Increased Energy Demands Upon Neuronal Activation in Hippocampal Slices and Provide Neuroprotection Against Oxidative Stress
TLDR
The data generated by these experiments support the hypothesis that lactate, not pyruvate, is the end-product of cerebral aerobic glycolysis and imply that NADH can be utilized as an endogenous scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to provide neuroprotection against ROS-induced neuronal damage.
Evidence for a Role of Proline and Hypothalamic Astrocytes in the Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Rats
TLDR
The studies suggest not only a new role for proline in the regulation of hepatic glucose production but also indicate that hypothalamic astrocytes are involved in the regulatory mechanism as well.
A metabolic switch in brain: glucose and lactate metabolism modulation by ascorbic acid
TLDR
The role of glucose and lactate as metabolic substrates and the modulation of neuronal metabolism by ascorbic acid are reviewed.
Astrocytic mitochondrial ROS modulate brain metabolism and mouse behaviour
TLDR
Astrocytic mitochondrial ROS regulate glucose utilization via the pentose-phosphate pathway and glutathione metabolism, which modulates the redox status and potentially the survival of neurons, and demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS are important regulators of organismal physiology in vivo.
Energy substrates to support glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic function: Role of glycogen, glucose and lactate
TLDR
It appears that glucose metabolism via the glycolytic pathway plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of normal glutamatergic and GABAergic activity and evidence is presented to support the notion that glycogen turnover may play an important role in this context.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 122 REFERENCES
Neurotransmitters regulate energy metabolism in astrocytes: implications for the metabolic trafficking between neural cells.
TLDR
Since lactate can support neuronal activity and synaptic function in vitro, the possibility should be considered that glucose uptake by the brain parenchyma occurs predominantly into astrocytes which subsequently release lactate for the use of neurons.
Energy Substrates for Neurons during Neural Activity: A Critical Review of the Astrocyte-Neuron Lactate Shuttle Hypothesis
  • C. Chih, E. Roberts
  • Biology
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 2003
TLDR
The authors conclude that the experimental evidence for the ANLSH is weak, and that existing evidence and theoretical considerations support the conventional hypothesis.
The Astrocyte-Neuron Lactate Shuttle: A Challenge of a Challenge
  • L. Hertz
  • Physics
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 2004
Lactate as a pivotal element in neuron–glia metabolic cooperation
Interaction between Astrocytes and Neurons Studied using a Mathematical Model of Compartmentalized Energy Metabolism
  • A. Aubert, R. Costalat
  • Biology
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 2005
TLDR
A mathematical model of compartmentalized energy metabolism between neurons and astrocytes is developed, showing that current experimental data on lactate kinetics are compatible with the ANLS hypothesis, and that it is essential to assess the neuronal andAstrocytic NADH/NAD+ ratio changes to test the AN LS hypothesis.
Regulation of energy metabolism by neurotransmitters in astrocytes in primary culture and in an immortalized cell line
TLDR
Observations reported here lend further support to the concept that astrocytes are important for the control of brain energy metabolism.
Glutamate uptake into astrocytes stimulates aerobic glycolysis: a mechanism coupling neuronal activity to glucose utilization.
TLDR
It is reported that glutamate, in addition to its receptor-mediated actions on neuronal excitability, stimulates glycolysis--i.e., glucose utilization and lactate production--in astrocytes and is consistent with data obtained from functional brain imaging studies indicating local nonoxidative glucose utilization during physiological activation.
Is Brain Lactate Metabolized Immediately after Neuronal Activity through the Oxidative Pathway?
  • J. Korf
  • Biology
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 2006
TLDR
The arguments favouring the idea that in the functioning brain, lactate is the major end product of both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis and that lactate subsequently serves as an oxidative substrate are summarized.
Glucose and lactate metabolism during brain activation
TLDR
The potential for an astrocytic–neuronal lactate flux has been estimated by comparing rates of glucose utilization in brain and in cultured neurons and astroCytes with those for lactate release and uptake, which indicates a larger local release than uptake of lactate and the necessity for rapid lactate clearance.
...
...