The effects of Triton WR 1339, starvation and cholesterol diet on the activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase and on the rates of mevalonic acid (MVA) biosynthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA in the soluble (140 000 g) and microsomal fractions of rat liver, on the rate of incorporation of these substrates into squalene, cholesterol and lanosterol in the rat liver postmitochondrial fraction and on the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis was studied. The administration of Triton WR 1339 (200 mg per 100 g of body weight twice) stimulated the activity of HMG-CoA reductase and MVA biosynthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA in the intact and solubilized microsomal fractions and had no effect on these parameters in the soluble fraction. Starvation for 36 hrs did not cause inhibition of the reductase activity or MVA biosynthesis from both substrates in the soluble fraction. Alimentary cholesterol significantly increased the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, had no effect on the rate of MVA biosynthesis from acetyl-CoA and stimulated the malonyl-CoA incorporation in to MVA in the soluble fraction. Starvation an alimentary cholesterol inhibited the HMG-CoA reductase activity and MVA biosynthesis from both substrates in the solubilized microsomal fraction. Triton WR 1339 stimulated 4--19-fold the lipid formation in the total unsaponified fraction and its components i.e. squalene, lanosterol, cholesterol, from acetyl-CoA and only insignificantly (1,2--1,7-fold) increased malonyl-CoA incorporation into these compounds. Starvation and alimentary cholesterol repressed lanosterol and cholesterol biosynthesis from acetyl-CoA, decreased malonyl-CoA incorporation into these sterols and had no influence on squalene biosynthesis from the two substrates. Triton WR 1339 and starvation inhibited the acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, unaffected by alimentary cholesterol. No significant changes in the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from the substrates were observed. The data obtained provide evidence for the existence of autonomic pathways of MVA biosynthesis localized in the soluble and microsomal fractions of rat liver. The pathway of MVA biosynthesis in the soluble fraction is less sensitive to regulatory factors. Sterol biosynthesis from malonyl-CoA is also more resistant to regulatory effects than sterol biosynthesis from acetyl-CoA. This suggests that HMG-CoA reductase localized in the soluble fraction takes part in MVA and sterol biosynthesis from malonyl-CoA.