Active smoking and secondhand smoke increase breast cancer risk: the report of the Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk (2009)

@article{Johnson2010ActiveSA,
  title={Active smoking and secondhand smoke increase breast cancer risk: the report of the Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk (2009)},
  author={Kenneth C Johnson and Anthony B Miller and Neil E Collishaw and Julie R. Palmer and S. Katharine Hammond and Andrew G. Salmon and Kenneth P. Cantor and Mark D. Miller and Norman F. Boyd and John Millar and Fernand Turcotte},
  journal={Tobacco Control},
  year={2010},
  volume={20},
  pages={e2 - e2}
}
Four authoritative reviews of active smoking and breast cancer have been published since 2000, but only one considered data after 2002 and conclusions varied. Three reviews of secondhand smoke (SHS) and breast cancer (2004–2006) each came to different conclusions. With 30 new studies since 2002, further review was deemed desirable. An Expert Panel was convened by four Canadian agencies, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada and… 
Smoking and Breast Cancer
  • P. Reynolds
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    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
  • 2012
TLDR
The most recent weight of the evidence has suggested a potentially casual role for active smoking and breast cancer, particularly for long-term heavy smoking and smoking initiation at an early age.
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TLDR
Results from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study strongly support a role for cigarette smoking in breast cancer etiology and emphasize the importance of timing of this exposure.
[Smoking and breast cancer].
  • D. Hrubá
  • Medicine
    Klinicka onkologie : casopis Ceske a Slovenske onkologicke spolecnosti
  • 2013
TLDR
Smoking may play a role in the breast cancer incidence and a possible protective effect of smoking on the incidence of breast cancer is explained by antiestrogenic activity of smoking, namely nicotine.
Never-smokers and the fraction of breast cancer attributable to second-hand smoke from parents during childhood: the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study 1991–2018
TLDR
One in 14 breast-cancer cases could have been avoided in the absence of SHS exposure from parents during childhood in a population of never-smoking women, suggesting the cancer burden attributable to SHS may be underestimated.
Active Cigarette Smoking, Variants in Carcinogen Metabolism Genes and Breast Cancer Risk among Pre‐ and Postmenopausal Women in Ontario, Canada
TLDR
No statistically significant association was found between active smoking and breast cancer risk among all women nor when stratified by menopausal status; however, nonsignificant increased premenopausal Breast cancer risk was observed among current smokers and women smoking before first pregnancy.
Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and risk of breast cancer in nonsmoking women. An updated review and meta-analysis
TLDR
Considering also the weak association of smoking with breast cancer, and the much lower exposures from ETS than from smoking, the analyses do not clearly demonstrate that ETS exposure increases risk of breast cancer in nonsmokers.
Breast Cancer (BC) Is a Window of Opportunity for Smoking Cessation: Results of a Retrospective Analysis of 1234 BC Survivors in Follow-Up Consultation
TLDR
Smoking-related patient care at diagnosis and smoking cessation patterns in women with a history of BC are described to raise important perspectives for considering BC treatment and follow-up as a window of opportunity for smoking cessation.
Does Tobacco Smoke Cause Breast Cancer?
TLDR
It was concluded, that residual confounding by alcohol consumption, an established risk factor for breast cancer, likely introduces a spurious positive association between smoking and breast cancer.
A prospective study of smoking and breast cancer risk among African-American women
TLDR
Evidence is strengthened that both active and passive smoking increase the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, and subgroups at higher risk among African-American women are identified.
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References

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Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk
TLDR
In conclusion, smoking has little or no independent effect on the risk of developing breast cancer; the effect of alcohol on breast cancer needs to be interpreted in the context of its beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease and its harmful effects on cirrhosis and cancers of the mouth, larynx, oesophagus and liver.
Accumulating evidence on passive and active smoking and breast cancer risk
TLDR
C Cohort studies with thorough passive smoking assessment would be helpful and studies exploring biological mechanisms are needed to explain the unexpected similarity of the passive and active risks.
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TLDR
Overall, the results of these studies suggest that smoking probably does not decrease the risk and indeed suggest that there may be an increased breast cancer risk with smoking of long duration, smoking before a first full-term pregnancy, and passive smoking.
Cigarette smoking increases risk for breast cancer in high-risk breast cancer families.
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TLDR
It is suggested that smoking may increase risk for breast cancer in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer, especially those with the strongest apparent familial predisposition.
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TLDR
The results of this study are particularly compelling because of its prospective design as compared with most earlier studies, the relatively large number of exposed women with breast cancer deaths, and the reporting of exposure by the spouse rather than by proxy.
Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer – collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58 515 women with breast cancer and 95 067 women without the disease
TLDR
In conclusion, smoking has little or no independent effect on the risk of developing breast cancer; the effect of alcohol on breast cancer needs to be interpreted in the context of its beneficial effects, in moderation, on cardiovascular disease and its harmful effects on cirrhosis.
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TLDR
Results suggest that passive smoking is unrelated to breast cancer, however, results for active smoking are compatible with a small increase in risk when smoking is initiated at young ages.
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TLDR
This study, one of the largest conducted in Europe to date, does not support the presence of any association of practical importance between cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk.
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TLDR
Smoking does not appear to be a risk factor for breast cancer among carriers of BRCA mutations, contrary to the previous report.
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