Active-site labeling of aspartate aminotransferases by the beta,gamma-unsaturated amino acid vinylglycine.


The pyridoxal form of both cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is irreversibly inactivated consequent to its interaction with the beta,gamma-unsaturated substrate analogue vinylglycine. Per catalytic cycle, 90% of the enzyme molecules are inactivated while 10% escape inactivation by transamination to the pyridoxamine form. In the presence of vinylglycine plus 2-oxoglutarate, inactivation is complete because of retransamination of the pyridoxamine form to the susceptible pyridoxal form. Peptide analyses after inactivation with [1-14C]vinylglycine showed that vinylglycine alkylates the active-site lysine residue 258 which forms the internal aldimine with the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The coenzyme itself is left intact; resolution of the inactivated enzyme by base or trichloroacetic acid yields pyridoxal-5'-P. The absorption spectrum of the inactivated enzyme (lambdamax 335 nm) suggests that the cofactor is bound as a substituted aldimine. The proposed pathway of alkylation of Lys-258 involves abstraction of the alpha proton from vinylglycine, isomerization to the alpha,beta-unsaturated enamine, and subsequent nucleophilic attack of the epsilon-amino group of the lysyl residue at the beta carbon of the inhibitor. The determination of the amino acid sequence around the coenzyme-binding lysyl residue in the mitochondrial isoenzyme from chicken gave Ala-(epsilon-Pxy)Lys-Asn-Met-(Gly,Leu,Tyr) which is identical with the other mitochondrial transaminases examined so far.


Citations per Year

73 Citations

Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has 73 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.

Cite this paper

@article{Gehring1977ActivesiteLO, title={Active-site labeling of aspartate aminotransferases by the beta,gamma-unsaturated amino acid vinylglycine.}, author={Heinz Gehring and Robert R. Rando and Philipp Christen}, journal={Biochemistry}, year={1977}, volume={16 22}, pages={4832-6} }