Active formation of ‘chaos terrain’ over shallow subsurface water on Europa

@article{Schmidt2011ActiveFO,
  title={Active formation of ‘chaos terrain’ over shallow subsurface water on Europa},
  author={Britney Elyce Schmidt and Donald D. Blankenship and G. Wesley Patterson and Paul M. Schenk},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2011},
  volume={479},
  pages={502-505}
}
Europa, the innermost icy satellite of Jupiter, has a tortured young surface and sustains a liquid water ocean below an ice shell of highly debated thickness. Quasi-circular areas of ice disruption called chaos terrains are unique to Europa, and both their formation and the ice-shell thickness depend on Europa's thermal state. No model so far has been able to explain why features such as Conamara Chaos stand above surrounding terrain and contain matrix domes. Melt-through of a thin (few… 

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