Activation of auditory cortex during silent lipreading.

@article{Calvert1997ActivationOA,
  title={Activation of auditory cortex during silent lipreading.},
  author={Gemma A. Calvert and Edward T. Bullmore and Michael J. Brammer and R. Campbell and S. C. Williams and Philip K. McGuire and Peter W. R. Woodruff and Susan D. Iversen and Anthony S. David},
  journal={Science},
  year={1997},
  volume={276 5312},
  pages={
          593-6
        }
}
Watching a speaker's lips during face-to-face conversation (lipreading) markedly improves speech perception, particularly in noisy conditions. With functional magnetic resonance imaging it was found that these linguistic visual cues are sufficient to activate auditory cortex in normal hearing individuals in the absence of auditory speech sounds. Two further experiments suggest that these auditory cortical areas are not engaged when an individual is viewing nonlinguistic facial movements but… 
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Speechreading: advances in understanding its cortical bases and implications for deafness and speech rehabilitation.
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  • Psychology, Medicine
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  • 1998
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Some cortical correlates of (silent) speechreading in normal people are described and contextualized with respect both to seeing faces and to hearing speech, and Superior temporal cortical areas are strongly and specifically implicated in seeing silent speech.
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Lipreading and Covert Speech Production Similarly Modulate Human Auditory-Cortex Responses to Pure Tones
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Findings suggest that the lipreading-related suppression in the auditory cortex is caused by top-down influences, possibly by an efference copy from the speech-production system, generated during both own speech and lipreading.
' Hearing tongue and seeing voices ' : neural correlates of audio-visuo-lingual speech perception
The present fMRI study examined the neural substrates of auditory, visual and audio-visual speech perception in relation to either labial or lingual movements (acquired with a camera and an
Investigating the temporal dynamics of auditory cortical activation to silent lipreading
TLDR
Evidence is provided to suggest that the EEG response over left temporal scalp tracks the unheard speech more faithfully during accurate lipreading, and it is demonstrated that the envelope can be reconstructed from EEG data recorded during silent lipreading with accuracy above chance level.
Silent lipreading and covert speech production suppress processing of non-linguistic sounds in auditory cortex.
TLDR
FMRI findings suggest that the speech motor system mediates suppression of auditory-cortex processing of non-linguistic sounds during silent lipreading and covert self-production in left hemisphere FST and right hemisphere STG lateral to HS.
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