Lipid metabolism modulation by the P2X7 receptor in the immune system and during the course of infection: new insights into the old view
Isolated ductal cells of rat submandibular gland phospholipid pools were labeled with [3H]arachidonic acid (AA). The tracer was incorporated preferentially to phosphatidylcholine (46% of the lipidic fraction). Extracellular ATP induced the release of [3H]AA to the extracellular medium in a time- and dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 220 microM). Among other agents tested, only 2', 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Bz-ATP) was able to mimic the effect of ATP (EC50 = 15 microM), without activation of phospholipase C. The purinergic antagonists oxidized ATP, suramin, and Coomassie Blue partly inhibited the response to 1 mM ATP and 100 microM Bz-ATP; the response was also blocked by the addition of Mg2+ or Ni2+. Expression of P2X7 receptor mRNA in these cells was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In the presence of extracellular calcium, the phospholipase A2 inhibitor 2-(p-amylcinnamoyl)amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid (a nonspecific inhibitor), arachidonyl trifluoromethylketone (AACOCF3, an inhibitor of the calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2)), and bromoenol lactone (an inhibitor of the calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2)) inhibited the release of [3H]AA induced by ATP and Bz-ATP. In the absence of extracellular calcium, the release of [3H]AA in response to the purinergic agonists was still observed; this response was not affected by AACOCF3 and completely blocked by bromoenol lactone. ATP and Bz-ATP stimulated a calcium-independent secretion of kallikrein, which could be blocked by BEL but which was enhanced by AACOCF3. It is concluded that the P2X7 receptor in ductal cells is coupled to kallikrein secretion through a calcium-dependent cPLA2 and a calcium-independent iPLA2.