Actions of motor neurons and leg muscles in jumping by planthopper insects (hemiptera, issidae)

@article{Burrows2010ActionsOM,
  title={Actions of motor neurons and leg muscles in jumping by planthopper insects (hemiptera, issidae)},
  author={Malcolm Burrows and Peter Br{\"a}unig},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Neurology},
  year={2010},
  volume={518}
}
To understand the catapult mechanism that propels jumping in a planthopper insect, the innervation and action of key muscles were analyzed. The large trochanteral depressor muscle, M133b,c, is innervated by two motor neurons and by two dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, all with axons in N3C. A smaller depressor muscle, M133a, is innervated by two neurons, one with a large‐diameter cell body, a large, blind‐ending dendrite, and a giant ovoid, axon measuring 50 μm by 30 μm in nerve N5A. The… 
Slowly contracting muscles power the rapid jumping of planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae)
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All ultrastructural features conform to those of slow muscle and thus suggest that the Issus muscle is capable of slow sustained contractions in keeping with its known actions during jumping.
Energy storage and synchronisation of hind leg movements during jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae)
  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2010
TLDR
High speed imaging and analysis of the mechanics of the proximal joints of the hind legs show that mechanical mechanisms ensure both synchrony of movements and energy storage of Issus.
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  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2013
TLDR
The kinematics and jumping performance of treehoppers were analysed from high speed images and the power output per mass of muscle far exceeds the maximum active contractile limit of normal muscle indicates that treehopper must be using a power amplification mechanism in a catapult-like action.
Jumping performance of flea hoppers and other mirid bugs (Hemiptera, Miridae)
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Analysis of the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high-speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles.
Jumping in lantern bugs (Hemiptera, Fulgoridae)
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  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2013
TLDR
Jumping in a species of Australian gum treehopper was analysed from high-speed images and the power output per mass of jumping muscle far exceeded the maximum active contractile limit of muscle and indicates that a catapult-like action must be used.
Three dimensional reconstruction of energy stores for jumping in planthoppers and froghoppers from confocal laser scanning microscopy
TLDR
The internal skeleton, tendons and muscles involved were reconstructed in 3-D from confocal scans in unprecedented detail and illuminates how miniaturized components interact and function in complex and rapid movements of small animals.
Interacting Gears Synchronize Propulsive Leg Movements in a Jumping Insect
TLDR
Functional gears are demonstrated in the ballistic jumping movements of the flightless planthopper insect, Issus, which has interlocking gears on their hindleg trochanters that act together to cock the legs synchronously before triggering forward jumps.
Jumping mechanisms and performance of snow fleas (Mecoptera, Boreidae)
  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2011
SUMMARY Flightless snow fleas (snow scorpion flies, Mecoptera, Boreidae) live as adults during northern hemisphere winters, often jumping and walking on the surface of snow. Their jumping mechanisms
Effectiveness and efficiency of two distinct mechanisms for take-off in a derbid planthopper insect
TLDR
Analysis of the kinematics of take-off in the planthopper Proutista moesta from high-speed videos showed that these insects used two distinct mechanisms involving different appendages; one fast (take-off velocity of 1.7 m s−1) propelled by the hind legs and the second six times slower, propelled by wing beating.
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