Action recognition in the premotor cortex.

  title={Action recognition in the premotor cortex.},
  author={Vittorio Gallese and Luciano Fadiga and Leonardo Fogassi and Giacomo Rizzolatti},
  journal={Brain : a journal of neurology},
  volume={119 ( Pt 2)},
We recorded electrical activity from 532 neurons in the rostral part of inferior area 6 (area F5) of two macaque monkeys. Previous data had shown that neurons of this area discharge during goal-directed hand and mouth movements. We describe here the properties of a newly discovered set of F5 neurons ("mirror neurons', n = 92) all of which became active both when the monkey performed a given action and when it observed a similar action performed by the experimenter. Mirror neurons, in order to… 

Visual Feedback from the Own Acting Hand Modulates the Activity of Grasping Neurons in Monkey Premotor Area

The finding that neurons in area F5 exhibit discharge properties that are common to both purely motor and mirror neurons allows the formulation of important assumptions about the critical role of online visual information during grasping and the nature of the mirror discharge.

Mirror Neurons Responding to Observation of Actions Made with Tools in Monkey Ventral Premotor Cortex

It is proposed that tool-responding mirror neurons enable the observing monkey to extend action-understanding capacity to actions that do not strictly correspond to its motor representations, which support the notion that the motor cortex plays a crucial role in understanding action goals.

Grasping objects and grasping action meanings: the dual role of monkey rostroventral premotor cortex (area F5).

It is proposed that the internal motor copies of the observed actions of monkey area F5 represent the neural basis for understanding the meaning of actions made by others.

Neural mechanisms of object-oriented action.

Results expand knowledge of the role of F5 in visuomotor grasp, by showing F5 single unit activity is compatible with encoding the physical properties of an object to be grasped as well as the motor prototype used for grasp.

Reactivity of the human primary motor cortex during observation of action

The reactivity of the human primary motor and somatosensory areas during observation of action using magnetoencephalography is studied and it is found that somatoensory evoked fields after tactile lip stimulation are somatotopically enhanced in primary somatosENSory cortex during silent lip-reading.

Activity in ventral premotor cortex is modulated by vision of own hand in action

This study shows that the frontal cortex contains neurons, previously classified as motor neurons, which are sensitive to the observation of meaningful phases of the own grasping action, and discusses the possible functional role of these populations.

Object representation in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) of the monkey.

Object shape is coded in F5 even when a response to that object is not required, and the possible visual or motor nature of this object coding is discussed.

Functional Properties of Parietal Hand Manipulation–related Neurons and Mirror Neurons Responding to Vision of Own Hand Action

Activity of hand manipulation-related and mirror neurons in anterior intraparietal/PFG plays a fundamental role in monitoring one's own body state based on visual feedback.



Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions.

Set-related neuronal activity in the premotor cortex of rhesus monkeys: effects of changes in motor set

  • S. WiseK. Mauritz
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1985
This hypothesis that the premotor cortex plays a role in motor preparation is tested in macaque monkeys by examining neuronal activity during an enforced, 1.5—3.0 s delay period between the presentation of an instruction for movement and the onset of that movement.

Preparation for movement: neural representations of intended direction in three motor areas of the monkey.

Compared the functional properties of neurons in three interrelated motor areas that have been implicated in the planning and execution of visually guided limb movements, the majority of cells with task-related preparatory activity showed selective activation in anticipation of elbow movements in a particular direction.

Neuronal activity in the primate premotor, supplementary, and precentral motor cortex during visually guided and internally determined sequential movements.

Observations support a hypothesis that the SMA is more related to IT, whereas PM is more involved in VT, and some indications pointing to a functional subdivision of PM are obtained.

Grasping objects: the cortical mechanisms of visuomotor transformation

Premotor cortex neurons in macaques: activity before distal and proximal forelimb movements

  • K. KurataJ. Tanji
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1986
Premotor cortex neurons were found to be active in association with a movement involving specifically the distal forelimb, and a number of neurons responded preferentially to one or two of the three signals.

The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery

  • M. Jeannerod
  • Psychology, Biology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1994
A mechanism is proposed that is able to encode the desired goal of the action and is applicable to different levels of representational organization, as well as investigating the role of posterior parietal and premotor cortical areas in schema instantiation.

Regional distribution of functions in parietal association area 7 of the monkey.

Results indicate that different functions are represented in different degrees in different parts of area 7, and one important determinant of the results obtained by various research groups is the area of recording within area 7.

Deficits in attention and movement following the removal of postarcuate (area 6) and prearcuate (area 8) cortex in macaque monkeys.

The effect of unilateral surgical ablations of the postarcuate cortex (area 6) has been studied in the macaque monkey (Macaca irus). Two series of neurological deficits were found: (1) a failure to