Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by δ9-THC in normal subjects

  title={Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by $\delta$9-THC in normal subjects},
  author={Antonio Waldo Zuardi and Itiro Shirakawa and E Finkelfarb and I. G. Karniol},
The object of the experiment was to verify whether cannabidiol (CBD) reduces the anxiety provoked by Δ9-TCH in normal volunteers, and whether this effect occurs by a general block of the action of Δ9-TCH or by a specific anxiolytic effect. Appropriate measurements and scales were utilized and the eight volunteers received, the following treatments in a double-blind procedure: 0.5 mg/kg Δ9-TCH, 1 mg/kg CBD, a mixture containing 0.5 mg/kg Δ9-TCH and 1 mg/kg CBD and placebo and diazepam (10 mg) as… 

Anxiolytic-like effect of cannabidiol in the rat Vogel conflict test

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Evidence is provided that the acute cannabinoid effects of marijuana smoke exposure on analgesia, hypothermia, and catalepsy in mice result from Δ9-THC content acting at CB1 receptors and that the non-Δ9- THC constituents of marijuana influence these effects only minimally, if at all.

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Effects of Cannabidiol and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Emotion, Cognition, and Attention: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Experimental Trial in Healthy Volunteers

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Interactions between THC and cannabidiol in mouse models of cannabinoid activity

As the amount of CBD found in most marijuana strains in the US is considerably less than that of THC, these results suggest that CBD concentrations relevant to what is normally found in marijuana exert very little, if any, modulatory effects on CB1-receptor-mediated pharmacological effects of marijuana smoke.

The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors

These results give further support to the proposal that BNST is involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of CBD observed after systemic administration, probably by facilitating local 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

Oral Cannabidiol does not Alter the Subjective, Reinforcing or Cardiovascular Effects of Smoked Cannabis

It is suggested that oral CBD does not reduce the reinforcing, physiological, or positive subjective effects of smoked cannabis, as well as the effect of oral THC on smoked cannabis administration.

Effects of cannabidiol on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal model of mania

Cannabidiol protect against d-AMPH-induced oxidative protein damage and increased BDNF levels in the reversal model and these effects vary depending on the brain regions evaluated and doses of CBD administered.



Influence of cannabidiol on delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol effects

Experiments investigating the possible interaction of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), two major components of marihuana, were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions in a

Modification of Δ9-THC-actions by cannabinol and cannabidiol in the rat

Cannabinol and Cannabidiol were tested in several test procedures known to be altered by δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or crude cannabis preparations and enhancement by CBD is best explained by an inhibition of THC-metabolism.

A comparison of LSD-25 with (−)-Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and attempted cross tolerance between LSD and THC

Patients tolerant to LSD were not cross-tolerant to THC, indicating that the mental effects of the two drugs are probably mediated by different mechanisms.

Hypnoticlike effects of cannabidiol in the rat

  • J. Monti
  • Biology, Psychology
  • 2004
Tolerance developed to all the effects of cannabidiol on the sleep-wakefulness cycle of male Wistar rats after once-daily injections of 40 mg/kg CBD for 15 days.


The results suggest that the subjective effects experienced by many marijuana smokers in this country are determined more by psychological factors than by the THC content of their cigarettes.

Intravenous Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabinol: Effects on Ventilatory Control and Cardiovascular Dynamics

Intense mental effects and anxiety prohibited higher THC doses, and the cardiovascular changes suggest betaadrenergic stimulation.

Comparative studies in man and in laboratory animals on 8 - and 9 -trans-tetrahydrocannabinol.

In man △9-THC revealed to be nearly twice as active as its isomer, and there were no qualitative differences between both drugs neither in man nor in the laboratory animals.

Interactions in man of delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol; II. Cannabinol and cannabidiol

The THC‐CBD combination tended to delay onset and prolong effects of THC, while making them somewhat more intense, providing no reason to abandon the current practice of basing doses of marihuana for clinical studies solely on THC content.

Clinical and psychological effects of marihuana in man.

The primitive state of knowledge of the drug, the research problems encountered in designing a replicable study, and the results of the investigations are described.

Interactions of marijuana and induced stress: forearm blood flow, heart rate, and skin conductance.

The results revealed all physiological variables to be reactive to the stress task, and marijuana intoxication produced reliable increases in both pre-stress HR and FBF, and yet the physiological response to the post-intoxication stress period showed no significant decrement when compared with the placebo group.