Action Research: Its Nature and Validity

@article{Checkland1998ActionRI,
  title={Action Research: Its Nature and Validity},
  author={Peter Checkland and Sue Holwell},
  journal={Systemic Practice and Action Research},
  year={1998},
  volume={11},
  pages={9-21}
}
The process of knowledge acquisition which has the strongest truth claim is the research process of natural science, based on testing hypotheses to destruction. But the application of this process to phenomena beyond those for which it was developed, namely, the natural regularities of the physical universe, is problematical. For research into social phenomena there is increasing interest in “action research” in various forms. In this process the researcher enters a real-world situation and… 
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