Actinomycosis: Diagnosis and Management

@article{Brook2008ActinomycosisDA,
  title={Actinomycosis: Diagnosis and Management},
  author={Itzhak Brook},
  journal={Southern Medical Journal},
  year={2008},
  volume={101},
  pages={1019-1023}
}
  • I. Brook
  • Published 1 October 2008
  • Medicine
  • Southern Medical Journal
Actinomycosis is an uncommon, chronic bacterial infection that induces both suppurative and granulomatous inflammation. Localized swelling with suppuration, abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and sinus drainage characterizes this disease. The infection spreads contiguously, often forming draining sinuses that extrude characteristic but not pathognomonic “sulfur granules.” Infections of the oral and cervicofacial regions are most common; however, any site in the body can be infected and it… 
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The case of a patient with a 2x2cm neck lump who was treated with complete surgical excision and a short two‐week course of antibiotics is presented, finding only one revealing actinomycosis with it's characteristic sulphur granule appearance.
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The clinical presentations of actinomycosis, its diagnosis, and approaches to treatment are reviewed, based on the findings of randomised controlled trials, prospective analytical and retrospective studies, review articles, and case reports.
Actinomycosis of the Upper Lip
TLDR
An 82-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic normal skin colored nodule on the upper lip and Histopathologic findings showed an abscess and sulfur granules in the dermis and Gram staining results showed a mesh of branching rods.
Imaging of actinomycosis in various organs: a comprehensive review.
  • S. Heo, S. Shin, H. Kang
  • Medicine
    Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • 2014
TLDR
In general, actinomycosis responds well to antibiotic therapy, but long-term follow-up after treatment is needed because of frequent relapses.
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References

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TLDR
The disease process is characterized by the formation of abscesses, fibrosis and woody induration of tissues, and draining sinuses that discharge "sulfur granules", and the prognosis for treated infection is excellent.
Thoracic actinomycosis
TLDR
The incidence of thoracic actinomycosis has declined recently and the classical presentation with chronic discharging sinuses is now uncommon and treatment is discussed, particularly the possible use of oral antibiotics rather than penicillin by injection.
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TLDR
A review of patients with abdominal actinomycosis to determine if all patients require surgical intervention and whether other adjunctive modalities may improve preoperative diagnosis found the computed tomographic scan is the most helpful diagnostic modality.
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TLDR
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TLDR
A review of 70 cases of CNS actinomycosis was conducted in an effort to characterize clinicopathologic features and identify patients with a high risk of death from infection.
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TLDR
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TLDR
The typical CT feature of parenchymal actinomycosis is a chronic segmental air-space consolidation containing necrotic low-attenuation areas with frequent cavity formation.
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TLDR
Sulfur granules identified on bronchial biopsies were highly suggestive of actinomycosis in most cases, but microbiological culture findings were usually negative, suggesting the need for endoscopic follow-up in Bronchial actincycosis.
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