Actinic keratoses

@article{Criscione2009ActinicK,
  title={Actinic keratoses},
  author={Vincent D Criscione and Martin A. Weinstock and Mark F. Naylor and Claudia Luque and Melody J. Eide and Stephen F. Bingham},
  journal={Cancer},
  year={2009},
  volume={115}
}
Actinic keratoses (AKs) are established as direct precursors of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but there is significant controversy regarding the rate at which AKs progress to SCC. The authors of this report studied a high‐risk population to estimate the risk of progression of AK to SCC and to basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and the risk of spontaneous regression of untreated AKs. 
Actinic keratosis with atypical basal cells (AK I) is the most common lesion associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
Progression from actinic keratosis (AK) to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (iSCC) of the skin is thought to occur after the development of full thickness epidermal neoplasia, as in the classic
The clinical course of actinic keratosis correlates with underlying molecular mechanisms
TLDR
The majority of AKs regress or persist, but some progress to squamous cell carcinomas, and biomarkers associated with their persistence, progression and regression have not been characterized.
A feasibility study of microwave therapy for precancerous actinic keratosis†
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common premalignant skin lesion that can progress to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Microwave therapy is an established cancer treatment and has been used for
Patient preferences for topical treatment of actinic keratoses: a discrete‐choice experiment
TLDR
The treatment of actinic keratosis is a potentially effective strategy for the prevention of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and the patient perspective on potential benefits in terms of skin cancer reduction has received little attention.
Actinic Keratosis: Rationale and Management
TLDR
The rationale behind the best available therapies for AKs is described in light of current understanding of pathophysiology and epidemiology and several novel therapies are under investigation.
Current perspective on actinic keratosis: a review
TLDR
Improved agreement among clinicians on AK definition may improve management, and treatments should aim to decrease the risk of KC or facilitate KC diagnosis by reducing the potential for misidentification created when a KC appears in a field of AKs.
Actinic keratosis: correlation between clinical and histological classification systems
There are several clinical and histological classification systems for grading actinic keratosis (AK) lesions. The Olsen clinical classification scheme grades AK lesions according to their thickness
Imiquimod induces sustained remission of actinic damage: a case report spanning one decade of observation.
TLDR
A patient who underwent field therapy with topical 5-FU for diffuse actinic damage and AKs and showed no inflammatory response within the perimeter of a prior BCC that had been treated with imiquimod 10 years prior is presented.
The Relapse rate in patients with actinic keratosis treated with diclofenac sodium 3% gel
TLDR
In this clinical trial topical therapy with diclofenac gel was demonstrated to be safe and effective overall for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
Prevalence and awareness of actinic keratosis: barriers and opportunities.
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References

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Frequency of pre‐existing actinic keratosis in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma
TLDR
Current changes in US healthcare policy will deny many individuals access to certain simple and effective treatment modalities for precancerous lesions.
Epidemiology of solar keratoses
TLDR
Solar keratoses (SKs) or actinic keratose are common dysplastic epidermal lesions which occur in pale‐skinned individuals who are chronically exposed to intense sunlight and constitute a major public health problem in such individuals.
Actinic keratosis is an early in situ squamous cell carcinoma: a proposal for reclassification
TLDR
An AK classification system is recommended that describes these lesions as squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), using the terminology ‘ early in situ SCC Type AK I’, ‘early in situSCC type AK II’ and ‘in situ S CC Type AK III’ to give clinicians better guidance for diagnosis and specific treatment recommendations.
The Kinetics of Skin Cancer: Progression of Actinic Keratosis to Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • A. Fuchs, Ellen S. Marmur
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TLDR
A retrospective electronic medical record study of patients diagnosed histopathologically with an SCC between July 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005 provides a good estimate of the time course from an AK to an S CC.
Malignant potential of actinic keratoses and the controversy over treatment. A patient-oriented perspective.
TLDR
A mathematical model resulting in patient-oriented statistics that can be more easily compared with historical estimates is presented, showing that the average malignant transformation rate for an actinic keratosis is only a fraction of a percent per year.
The Majority of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas Arise in Actinic Keratoses
TLDR
Actinic keratoses need to be removed before they turn into SCCs, and the prognostic significance of ulceration of cutaneous S CCs needs to be determined.
Clinical recognition of actinic keratoses in a high-risk population: how good are we?
TLDR
The preliminary data suggest that the threshold for biopsy of suspect lesions in patients with a history of skin cancer should be low and warrant further evaluation, and that physicians may be misdiagnosing many patients with classic features of AKs.
Solar keratosis: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation and treatment
TLDR
Traditional therapies, such as liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, are still popular, but newer choices are now providing further options with similar efficacy and superior adverse effect profiles, albeit at a higher cost.
Basosquamous carcinoma. Commentary
TLDR
In this retrospective study, BSCs displayed tissue invasion similar to that of BCC or SCC but had a higher frequency of pulmonary metastasis than SCC.
Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones?
TLDR
Clinical features of actinic keratoses that provide a practical guide to practitioners in the treatment of AK are found, including IDRBEU, which is the most common premalignant lesion in humans.
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