Actin associated with plasmodesmata

  title={Actin associated with plasmodesmata},
  author={R. Gail White and K. Badelt and Robyn L. Overall and Maret Vesk},
SummaryWe have used several methods to localise actin associated with plasmodesmata. In meristematic plant material fixed in 0.1% glutaraldehyde/1% paraformaldehyde and embedded in LR White resin, actin was localised (in TEM using 5 nm gold-labelled secondary antibody to C4 anti-actin primary antibody) in the neck region by the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, and also down the length of the plasmodesma, deep in the cell wall. When the chemical fixation was replaced by rapid freezing… 
Callose deposition at plasmodesmata
The inhibition of callose formation by chemical means showed that the neck constrictions and raised collars in this area are artefacts due to physical wounding and glutaraldehyde fixation.
The cytoskeleton in plasmodesmata: a role in intercellular transport?
It is likely that actin- and myosin-associated proteins play a key role in regulating cell-cell transport, by interacting with cargo and loading it into PD, and may underlie the capacity for one-way transport across particular cell and tissue boundaries.
Plant Lipid Bodies Traffic on Actin to Plasmodesmata Motorized by Myosin XIs
The data reveal that LBs and OLEOSINs both function in proliferating apices and buds, and that directional trafficking of LBs to plasmodesmata requires the actomyosin system.
Intercellular translocation of molecules via plasmodesmata in the multiseriate filamentous brown alga, Halopteris congesta (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae)
Plasmodesmatal permeability of Halopteris congesta was examined by observing the translocation of microinjected fluorescent tracers of different molecular sizes and it was suggested that the diffusing capacity of plasmodesmata varied according to molecular size.
Plasmodesmal widening accompanies the short-term increase in symplasmic phloem unloading in pea root tips under osmotic stress
  • A. Schulz
  • Environmental Science
  • 2005
This is the first report showing a correlation between the ultrastructure of plasmodesmata and the rate of symplasmic transport, and both loss of neck constriction and widening of the cytoplasmic sleeve indicate an increase in effective passage area of plASMata.
High resolution scanning electron microscopy of plasmodesmata
High-resolution scanning electron microscopy is exploited to reveal the 3-dimensional morphology of PD in the cell walls of algae, ferns and higher plants, adding weight to the argument that Chara PD contain desmotubules and are morphologically similar to higher plant PD.
A 41 kDa protein isolated from maize mesocotyl cell walls immunolocalizes to plasmodesmata
Electron microscopic immuno-gold labeling localized the polypeptide to plasmodesmata and to electron dense cytoplasmic structures that are apparently Golgi membranes, and the significance of the presence of this protein in the Golgi is discussed.
A Plasmodesmal Glycosyltransferase-Like Protein
This study used a known Pd-associated calreticulin protein AtCRT1 as bait as bait to isolate other Pd associated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified a beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase-like enzyme (AtGnTL).


Intercellular communication inAzolla roots: I. Ultrastructure of plasmodesmata
A model is proposed for the structure of the plasmodesmata of Azolla root primordia, based on micrographs obtained by a combination of fixation in glutaraldehyde/p-formaldehyde/tannic acid/ferric chloride, digestion of cell walls and the use of stereo pairs, indicating that the model is geometrically feasible.
The structure of plasmodesmata as revealed by plasmolysis, detergent extraction, and protease digestion
The images and the results with detergents and proteases indicate that the desmotubule provides a cytoskeletal element for each plasmodesma, an element that not only stabilizes the whole structure, but also limits its size and porosity.
The neck constriction in plasmodesmata
Simple plasmodesmata between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in actively expanding leaves of Salsola kali L. and roots of Epilobium hirsutum are shown to possess specialized structures, called sphincters, around their neck regions, and evidence is presented that these ring structures are structural equivalents to hypothetical Sphineters performing some valve function.
Cytochalasin‐Induced reorganization of actin in allium root cells
The results reveal that the reorganization of F-actin in response to cytochalasins differs during the cell cycle, and the aggregation of actin during division is probably governed by an energy-dependent interaction with microtubules.
Endoplasmic reticulum in the formation of the cell plate and plasmodesmata
Electron microscopic observations show that elements of ER become loosely associated with aggregating dictyosome vesicles at the onset of plate formation, and structural observations support the idea that during formation of the plasmodesma a tubular element of ER is tightly furled upon itself and its inner leaflet is compressed into a rod.
Substructure of freeze-substituted plasmodesmata
The substructure of plasmodesmata in freeze-substituted tissues of developing leaves of the tobacco plant was studied by high resolution electron microscopy and computer image enhancement techniques and the space between the desmotubule and the plasma membrane appears to be the major pathway for intercellular transport through plasmodemata.
Organization of the actin filament cytoskeleton in the intestinal brush border: a quantitative and qualitative immunoelectron microscope study
The present findings would support a recently proposed hypothesis that the 110-kD protein (which displays properties of an actin-activated, myosin-like ATPase) might also be involved in the transport of vesicles through the terminal web.
Hydrodynamic radius alone governs the mobility of molecules through plasmodesmata
Various fluorescent molecular probes have been injected into the cytoplasm of nectary trichome cells of Abutilon striatum to ascertain the conductivity of the plasmodesmata, and it is proposed that in Ab utilon the mobility of a probe is determined solely by the effective Stokes radius of the molecule.
Observations on structure and differentiation in plasmodesmata
Evidence is presented that the young cell wall after division contains a large number of plasmodesmata, probably functionally and structurally identical, and that the development process involves characteristic modifications both to the distribution of plASMata within the wall, and to the structure of individual plasmodemata.