Acquisition of retinoic acid signaling pathway and innovation of the chordate body plan.

@article{Fujiwara2003AcquisitionOR,
  title={Acquisition of retinoic acid signaling pathway and innovation of the chordate body plan.},
  author={Shigeki Fujiwara and Kazuo Kawamura},
  journal={Zoological science},
  year={2003},
  volume={20 7},
  pages={
          809-18
        }
}
Retinoic acid (RA) regulates many of the chordate-specific and vertebrate-specific characters. These include the anteroposterior pattern of the dorsally located central nervous system, pharynx with gill slits, neural crest cells, limb morphogenesis and anteroposteriorly organized vertebrae. The necessity of endogenous RA and the RA receptor (RAR) has been demonstrated by mutant analyses, vitamin A-deficient animals and various other methods. Since RAR has been identified only in chordates, the… CONTINUE READING

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