Acquisition of Digestive Enzymes by Siricid Woodwasps from Their Fungal Symbiont

  title={Acquisition of Digestive Enzymes by Siricid Woodwasps from Their Fungal Symbiont},
  author={J. Kukor and M. Martin},
  pages={1161 - 1163}
Larvae of the woodwasp, Sirex cyaneus, contain midgut digestive enzymes that enable them to utilize the major fungal and plant polysaccharides found in their food. At least two classes of enzymes, the Cχ-cellulases and the xylanases, are not produced by the larvae. Instead, larvae acquire these enzymes while ingesting tissue of Amylostereum chailletii, the fungal symbiont that occurs in the wood on which the larvae feed. 
The transformation of Saperda calcarata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) into a cellulose digester through the inclusion of fungal enzymes in its diet
It is argued that ingested fungal enzymes may be responsible for cellulose digestion in many, perhaps most or even all, cellulose digesting cerambycid beetles. Expand
Comparative aspects of plant cell wall digestion in insects
While the bulk of the plant lignin is not significantly degraded under the conditions characteristic of gut contents of herbivores, some groups of insects are thought to be able to digest a part of this non-carbohydrate polymer. Expand
Cellulose digestion inMonochamus marmorator Kby. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Role of acquired fungal enzymes
It is concluded that the enzymes which enable M. marmorator larvae to digest cellulose are not produced by the larvae, and the larvae acquire the capacity to Digest cellulose by ingesting active fungal cellulases while feeding in fungus-infected wood. Expand
Cellulolytic systems in insects.
DNA sequences of cellulase and associated genes, as well as physiological and morphological information about the digestive systems of cellulases-producing insects, may allow the efficient use of cellulosic biomass as a sustainable energy source. Expand
Siricid Woodwasps and Their Fungal Symbionts in Asia, Specifically Those Occurring in Japan
This chapter found that A. areolatum was carried by Sirex nitobei and Xoanon matsumurae, while A. laevigatum was the symbiont of Urocers antennatus and U. japonicus in Japan. Expand
The effect of acquired microbial enzymes on assimilation efficiency in the common woodlouse, Tracheoniscus rathkei
The assimilation of carbon from labeled plant fiber is enhanced in isopods which have acquired a cellulase by ingestion of leaf litter amended with a commercial preparation of the cellulase complex from the fungus, Penicillium funiculosum. Expand
Fungal and vascular plant polysaccharide digestion by larvae of Aenetus virescens (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae)
Larval feeding by the wood borer Aenetus virescens is characterised by an initial diet of dead wood and fungal fruiting bodies (“litter-phase”) followed by a transition to callus tissue of trees andExpand
Cellulose-degrading bacteria associated with the invasive woodwasp Sirex noctilio
It is proposed that a consortium of microorganisms, including the described bacteria and the fungal symbiont Amylostereum areolatum, has complementary functions for degrading woody substrates and that such degradation may assist in nutrient acquisition by S. noctilio, thus contributing to its ability to be established in forested habitats worldwide. Expand
Cellulose digestion in Panesthia cribrata Saussure: does fungal cellulase play a role?☆
It is concluded that fungal attack softens the wood, facilitating burrowing by the cockroach, and fungi are not required to convert crystalline to amorphous cellulose, as both are hydrolysed at similar rates by cockroach extracts. Expand
The Woodwasp Sirex noctilio and Its Associated Fungus Amylostereum areolatum in Europe
The current knowledge about the biology and ecology of siricid woodwasps and their Amylostereum mutualistic fungi, with a specific focus on Sirex noctilio and Amylostereum areolatum, are summarizedExpand


Cellulose Digestion in the Midgut of the Fungus-Growing Termite Macrotermes natalensis: The Role of Acquired Digestive Enzymes
It is suggested that the involvement of acquired digestive enzymes could serve as the basis for a general strategy of resource utilization and that the acquisition of digestive enzymes may be a widespread phenomenon among mycophagous invertebrates. Expand
Digestive Enzymes of Fungus-Feeding Beetles
The digestive capabilities of 11 species of fungus-feeding beetles, representing five families, were examined and it was noted that many invertebrate detritivores possess digestive capabilities which are qualitatively more similar to those of fungivores than herbivores. Expand
Carboxymethyl Cellulose Decomposition by Intestinal Bacteria of Cockroaches
The numbers indicated the presence of a resident, multiplying population of predominantly anaerobic carboxymethyl cellulose-digesting bacteria in both species of cockroaches. Expand
Carbohydrate fermentation and by-product absorption studied with labelled cellulose in Oryctes nasicornis larvae (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae)
The mesenteron and the proctodeal dilation were both shown to be sites of cellulolysis and VFA absorption and acetic acid formed and absorbed, which would seem to constitute the essential product of carbon metabolism in Oryctes larvae as in ruminant mammals. Expand
Volatile fatty acids and methane production in relation to anaerobic carbohydrate fermentation in Oryctes nasicornis larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).
Physico-chemical investigations into the conditions of cellulose digestion by Oryctes nasicornis larvae show that the intestinal contents constitute a reducing alkaline medium, and methane formation takes place exclusively in the proctodeal dilation from which it is released to the exterior. Expand
An experimental study of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in the alimentary canal of the American cockroach
It is proposed that cellulose and hemicellulose are potentially of nutritional significance in this insect and that the hindgut may be an important site of degradation. Expand
Ultrasensitive stain for proteins in polyacrylamide gels shows regional variation in cerebrospinal fluid proteins.
A new silver stain for electrophoretically separated polypeptides can be rapidly and easily used and can detect as little as 0.01 nanogram of protein per square millimeter. When employed withExpand
Intestinal microbiota of termites and other xylophagous insects.
  • J. Breznak
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annual review of microbiology
  • 1982
Role of Microorganisms in the Metabolism of Termites
The current knowledge of the role of symbiotic microorganisms in the metabolism of termites is reviewed, suggesting that termites may be able to re-utilize the nitrogen in the uric acid stores in their fat body using hindgut bacteria. Expand
For an up-to-date discussion of cellulolysis and the cellulase complex, see
  • Biotechnology Commission
  • 1981